1School of Physical Education and Sports, Rashtriya Raksha University, Gandhinagar, India
2Department of Exercise Physiology, Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior, India
Does complex contrast training induce higher physical fitness improvement in stronger compared to weaker individuals?
This study compared the effects of complex contrast training (CCT) on measures of physical fitness in stronger compared to weaker individuals. Forty-one participants were initially recruited for relative strength assessment in the back squat. Thereafter, 26 participants were purposively assigned to either a stronger group (CCT-ST; relative strength ≥1.75; n = 12) or a weaker group (CCT-WK; relative strength <1.55; n = 14). Physical fitness tests were assessed pre- and post-six weeks of CCT training. Tests included 30-m sprint for speed, standing long jump and countermovement jump for power, and isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors for strength. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of time for all dependent variables (all p <0.001, ɳp2 = 0.83 – 0.89 [large]). Post-hoc tests indicated significant performance improvements within-group for CCT-ST (all p <0.001, Hedge’s g = 0.27 – 0.98 [small to moderate], %Δ = 3.0 – 16.4) and CCT-WK (all p <0.001, Hedge’s g = 0.37 to 1.34 [small to large], %Δ = 3.1 – 17.4) for all dependent variables. No group-by-time interaction was found for the included variables. In conclusion, CCT intervention provided similar effects on the assessed measures of physical fitness in both stronger as well as weaker active individuals. Therefore, CCT can be an effective training strategy to improve physical fitness among active individuals irrespective of their relative strength.
Plyometric exercise, human physical conditioning, resistance training, muscle strength, exercise, athletic performance
Ali, K., Verma, S., Ahmad, I., Singla, D., Saleem, M., & Hussain, M. E. (2019). Comparison of complex versus contrast training on steroid hormones and sports performance in male soccer players. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 18(2), 131-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2018.12.001
Blazevich, A. J., & Babault, N. (2019). Post-activation potentiation versus post-activation performance enhancement in humans: historical perspective, underlying mechanisms, and current issues. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 1359. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01359
Carter, J., & Greenwood, M. (2014). Complex training reexamined: Review and recommendations to improve strength and power. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 36(2), 11-19.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (Second ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cormie, P., McGuigan, M. R., & Newton, R. U. (2010). Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(8), 1566-1581. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cf818d
Cormier, P., Freitas, T. T., Loturco, I., Turner, A., Virgile, A., Haff, G. G., Blazevich, A. J., Agar-Newman, D., Henneberry, M., Baker, D. G., McGuigan, M., Alcaraz, P. E., & Bishop, C. (2022). Within session exercise sequencing during programming for complex training: historical perspectives, terminology, and training considerations. Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-022-01715-x
Cormier, P., Freitas, T. T., Rubio-Arias, J., & Alcaraz, P. E. (2020). Complex and contrast training: does strength and power training sequence affect performance-based adaptations in team sports? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(5), 1461-1479. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003493
Faude, O., Roth, R., Di Giovine, D., Zahner, L., & Donath, L. (2013). Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial. Journal of Sports Science, 31(13), 1460-1467. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.796065
Hammami, M., Negra, Y., Shephard, R. J., & Chelly, M. S. (2017). The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(4), 901-912. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001815
Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(1), 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278
Jiménez-Reyes, P., Garcia-Ramos, A., Párraga-Montilla, J. A., Morcillo-Losa, J. A., Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V., Castaño-Zambudio, A., Samozino, P., & Morin, J. B. (2022). Seasonal changes in the sprint acceleration force-velocity profile of elite male soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 36 (1), 70-74. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003513
Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012
Kumar, G., Pandey, V., Thapa, R. K., Weldon, A., Granacher, U., & Ramirez-Campillo, R. (2023). Effects of exercise frequency with complex contrast training on measures of physical fitness in active adult males. Sports, 11 (1), 11. https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4663/11/1/11
Macaluso, F., Isaacs, A. W., & Myburgh, K. H. (2012). Preferential type II muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(4), 414-420. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-47.4.13
Mangine, G. T., Gonzalez, A. M., Townsend, J. R., Wells, A. J., Beyer, K. S., Miramonti, A. A., Ratamess, N. A., Stout, J. R., & Hoffman, J. R. (2018). Influence of Baseline Muscle Strength and Size Measures on Training Adaptations in Resistance-trained Men. International Journal of Exercise Science, 11(4), 198-213.
Newton, R. U., & Kraemer, W. J. (1994). Developing Explosive Muscular Power: Implications for a Mixed Methods Training Strategy. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 16(5), 20-31.
Ramirez-Campillo, R., Perez-Castilla, A., Thapa, R. K., Afonso, J., Clemente, F. M., Colado, J. C., de Villarreal, E. S., & Chaabene, H. (2022). Effects of Plyometric Jump Training on Measures of Physical Fitness and Sport-Specific Performance of Water Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis. Sports Medicine Open, 8(1), 108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-022-00502-2
Sáez de Villarreal, E., Requena, B., Izquierdo, M., & Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J. (2013). Enhancing sprint and strength performance: combined versus maximal power, traditional heavy-resistance and plyometric training. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 16(2), 146-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.05.007
Sale, D. G. (1987). Influence of exercise and training on motor unit activation. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 15, 95-151.
Sale, D. G. (2002). Postactivation potentiation: role in human performance. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 30(3), 138-143. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200207000-00008
Seitz, L. B., de Villarreal, E. S., & Haff, G. G. (2014). The temporal profile of postactivation potentiation is related to strength level. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(3), 706-715. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a73ea3
Seitz, L. B., & Haff, G. G. (2016). Factors Modulating Post-Activation Potentiation of Jump, Sprint, Throw, and Upper-Body Ballistic Performances: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(2), 231-240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0415-7
Singh, G., Kushwah, G., Singh, T., Ramirez-Campillo, R., & Thapa, R. K. (2022). Effects of six weeks outdoor versus treadmill running on physical fitness and body composition in recreationally active young males: a pilot study. PeerJ, 10:e13791. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13791
Singh, G., Kushwah, G. S., Singh, T., Thapa, R. K., Granacher, U., & Ramirez-Campillo, R. (2022). Effects of sand-based plyometric-jump training in combination with endurance running on outdoor or treadmill surface on physical fitness in young adult males. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 21(2), 277-286.
Spineti, J., Figueiredo, T., Bastos, D. E. O. V., Assis, M., Fernandes, D. E. O. L., Miranda, H., Machado, D. E. R. R. V. M., & Simão, R. (2016). Comparison between traditional strength training and complex contrast training on repeated sprint ability and muscle architecture in elite soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 56(11), 1269-1278.
Suchomel, T. J., Sato, K., DeWeese, B. H., Ebben, W. P., & Stone, M. H. (2016). Potentiation Following Ballistic and Nonballistic Complexes: The Effect of Strength Level. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30(7), 1825-1833. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001288
Thapa, R. K., Kumar, A., Kumar, G., & Narvariya, P. (2020). A combination of ballistic exercises with slow and fast stretch-shortening cycle induces post-activation performance enhancement. Trends in Sport Sciences, 27(4), 203-211. https://doi.org/10.23829/TSS.2020.27.4-3
Thapa, R. K., Kumar, A., & Sharma, D. (2020). Effect of drop height on different parameters of drop jump among soccer players. Trends in Sport Sciences, 27 (1), 13-18. https://doi.org/10.23829/TSS.2020.27.1-2
Thapa, R. K., Lum, D., Moran, J., & Ramirez-Campillo, R. (2021). Effects of complex training on sprint, jump, and change of direction ability of soccer players: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 627869. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.627869
Thapa, R. K., Narvariya, P., Weldon, A., Talukdar, K., & Ramirez-Campillo, R. (2022). Can complex contrast training interventions improve aerobic endurance, maximal strength, and repeated sprint ability in soccer players? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11(2), Ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm.220906
Wisløff, U., Castagna, C., Helgerud, J., Jones, R., & Hoff, J. (2004). Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (3), 285-288. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.002071