Mohammadreza Rezaeipour1, Gennady Leonidovich Apanasenko2, Zahra Raghi3
1University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Department of Sports Science, Zahedan, Iran
2NMAPE, Faculty of sports medicine, Ukrainian Center of Sports Medicine, Kyiv, Ukraine
3University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Department of Sports Science, Zahedan, Iran
Efficacy of the WATERinMOTION Aquatics Exercise Programme on the Body Weight and Composition of Sedentary Older Women with Overweight/Obesity
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2021, 10(2), 19-24 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.210903
Some controversy remains regarding the effects of aquatic exercise on body weight and composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impacts of the WATERinMOTION aquatics exercise program on body weight and composition without nutritional intervention in sedentary older women with overweight/ obesity. The study was developed as a quasi-experimental project (pre/post-study). Forty-four inactive women were volunteers from a convenience sample with a mean age of 71.1±5.7 years (Ukraine, 2019). Participants were allocated randomly into two groups: WATERinMOTION (n=22) or a control group (n=22). Meanwhile, the WATERinMOTION group performed the WATERinMOTION exercise programme with two weekly sessions of 55 minutes each. The control subjects did not participate in any physical exercises. They were asked to perform their routine activities during the study. Both programmes lasted one month. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), total body water (TBW), and free fat mass (FFM) were the anthropometric variables that were measured pre/post-study. The analysis found statistically significant differences in body weight (-0.7, P=0.004), BMI (-0.3, P=0.002), and FM (-0.6, P=0.03) between the pre and post measurements of the WATERinMOTION group. Moreover, the comparison of groups at post revealed a significant difference in body weight (P˂0.001), BMI (P˂0.001), TBW (P=0.005), FM (P˂0. 001), FFM (P=0.003), and WC (P=0.007). The WATERin- MOTION programme, which is not associated with nutritional monitoring, showed significant benefits for losing weight and the body composition of sedentary older women who are overweight and/or obese.
body composition, exercise therapy, resistance training, waist circumference, obesity, weight loss
View full article
(PDF – 309KB)
Bagherian, S., Ghasempoor, K., Rahnama, N., & Wikstrom, E. A. (2019). The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in College Athletes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 28(5), 444-449. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2017-0107
Bure, A. (2019). Physical Activity in the Water and the Human Body. Retrieved from https://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/167487
Carr, D. B., Utzschneider, K. M., Hull, R. L., Kodama, K., Retzlaff, B. M., Brunzell, J. D., et al. (2004). Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes, 53(8), 2087-2094. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.8.2087
Centers for Disease Control (2017). About Adult BMI. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html
Charmas, M., & Gromisz, W. (2019). Effect of 12-week swimming training on body composition in young women. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), 346. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030346
Church, T., & Martin, C. K. (2018). The obesity epidemic: a consequence of reduced energy expenditure and the uncoupling of energy intake? Obesity, 26(1), 14-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22072
Darley, T. (2020). Effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program for Reducing Weight, Body Fat and Chronic Low Back and Joint Pain. Unpublished Scholarly Project. Marquette, MI: Northern Michigan University.
Geneen, L. J., Moore, R. A., Clarke, C., Martin, D., Colvin, L. A., & Smith, B. H. (2017). Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1(1), CD011279. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011279.pub2.
Gray, D. S., Bray, G. A., Gemayel, N., & Kaplan, K. (1989). Effect of obesity on bioelectrical impedance. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 50 (2), 255-260. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/50.2.255
Kirsten Ferrigan, K., Hice, J., Leemkuil, K., Singer, S., Charles, D., & Michaels, N. ve Jones, T. (2017). Aquatic exercise for weight reduction in middle-aged adults: a pilot study. The Journal of Aquatic Physical Therapy, 25(2), 16-21.
Kivimäki, M., Kuosma, E., Ferrie, J. E., Luukkonen, R., Nyberg, S. T., Alfredsson, L., et al. (2017). Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe. The Lancet Public Health, 2(6), e277-e285. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30074-9
Lee, B.-A., & Oh, D.-J. (2015). Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women. Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 11(5), 266. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.150242
Mainenti, M. R. M., Rodrigues, É. d. C., Oliveira, J. F. d., Ferreira, A. d. S., Dias, C. M., & Silva, A. L. d. S. (2011). Adiposity and postural balance control: correlations between bioelectrical impedance and stabilometric signals in elderly Brazilian women. Clinics, 66(9), 1513-1518. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322011000900001
Naylor, L. H., Maslen, B. A., Cox, K. L., Spence, A. L., Robey, E., Haynes, A., et al. (2020). Land-versus water-walking interventions in older adults: Effects on body composition. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 23(2), 164-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.08.019
Neiva, H. P., Fail, L. B., Izquierdo, M., Marques, M. C., & Marinho, D. A. (2018). The effect of 12 weeks of water-aerobics on health status and physical fitness: An ecological approach. PloS one, 13(5), e0198319. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198319. eCollection 2018
Nowak, J., Hudzik, B., Kulik-Kupka, K., Zieleń-Zynek, I., Kowalska, J., & Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, B. (2019). Discordance between body-mass index and body adiposity index in classification of adiposity status in the elderly. Paper presented at the 21st European Congress of Endocrinology.
O'Brien, E., Asmar, R., Beilin, L., Imai, Y., Mancia, G., Mengden, T., et al. (2005). Practice guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension for clinic, ambulatory and self blood pressure measurement. Journal of hypertension, 23(4), 697-701. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000163132.84890.c4.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., McDowell, M. A., Tabak, C. J., & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. Jama, 295(13), 1549-1555. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.295.13.1549
Penaforte, F. R. O., Calhau, R., Mota, G. R., & Chiarello, P. G. (2015). Impact of short-term water exercise programs on weight, body composition, metabolic profile and quality of life of obese women. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10(4), 915-926.
Pereira, C., da Silva, R. A., de Oliveira, M. R., Souza, R. D., Borges, R. J., & Vieira, E. R. (2018). Effect of body mass index and fat mass on balance force platform measurements during a one-legged stance in older adults. Aging clinical and experimental research, 30(5), 441-447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-017-0796-6
Raffaelli, C., Lanza, M., Zanolla, L., & Zamparo, P. (2010). Exercise intensity of head-out water-based activities (water fitness). European Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(5), 829-838. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1419-5
Rezaeipour, M. (2019). Comparison of effect of weight loss and physical exercise on the cardiac risk profiles of middle-aged women with overweight: a quasi-experimental study. Urmia Medical Journal, 30(7), 548-555.
Rezaeipour, M. (2020). Investigation of Pool Workouts on Weight, Body Composition, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Quality of Life among Sedentary Obese Older Women. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(1), 67-72. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm.200309
Rezaeipour, M., & Apanasenko, G. (2020). Influences of Weight Loss and Physical Exercise on Lipid Panel in Overweight Middle-Aged Men. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 24(3), e100748. https://doi.org/10.5812/hmj.100748.
Rezaeipour, M., & Apanasenko, G. L. (2019). Effects of Waterobics Programs on Body Mass, Body Composition, and Coronary Risk Profile of Sedentary Obese Middle-aged Women. Women’s Health Bulletin, 6(4), 13-17.
Rezaeipour, M., & Nychyporuk, V. I. (2019). Study of Weight Loss Parameters Among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Females Using Different Time Models of Aquafit. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 23(4).
Rica, R. L., Carneiro, R. M. M., Serra, A. J., Rodriguez, D., Pontes Junior, F. L., & Bocalini, D. S. (2013). Effects of water‐based exercise in obese older women: Impact of short‐term follow‐up study on anthropometric, functional fitness and quality of life parameters. Geriatrics & gerontology international, 13(1), 209-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00889.x.
Sanders, M. E., Islam, M. M., Naruse, A., Takeshima, N., & Rogers, M. E. (2016). Aquatic exercise for better living on land: Impact of shallow-water exercise on older Japanese women for performance of activities of daily living (ADL). International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.10.01.01
Siqueira, U. S., Valente, L. G. O., de Mello, M. T., Szejnfeld, V. L., & Pinheiro, M. M. (2017). Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercises in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized, Controlled, 16-Week Intervention—the HydRA Trial. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 96(3), 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000564
Spirduso, W., Francis, K., & MacRae, P. (1995). Physical dimensions of aging. Human kinetics. Champaign Illinois USA. Systems, C. R. (2012). Sample size calculator. Retrieved from https://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm
Tamin, T. Z., & Loekito, N. (2018). Aquatic versus land-based exercise for cardiorespiratory endurance and quality of life in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 27(4), 284-292. https://doi.org/10.13181/mji.v27i4.2107
Vuittonet, C. L., Sbharwal, A., & Pitchumoni, C. (2020). Obesity in Older Adults: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications. Geriatric Gastroenterology, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90761-1_98-1
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic: World Health Organization.