Filipe Rodrigues1,2,3, Pedro Forte3,4,5, Diogo Santos Teixeira6,7, Luís Cid1,3, Diogo Monteiro3,8

1Polytechnique Institute of Santarém, Sport Science School of Rio Maior (ESDRM-IPSantarém), Rio Maior, Portugal
2Research Center in Quality of Life (CIEQV), Santarém, Portugal
3Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
4Instituto Superior de Ciências Educativas (ISCE Douro), Penafiel, Portugal
5Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, (IPB), Bragança, Portugal
6University of Lusófona (ULHT), Lisbon, Portugal
7Center for the Study of Human Performance (CIPER), Lisbon, Portugal
8Polytechnic of Leiria, ESECS, Leiria, Portugal

The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (Paces) as a Two-Dimensional Scale: Exploratory and Invariance Analysis

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2021, 10(1), 61-66 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.210309


ing two correlated but distinct dimensions of enjoyment. In total, 277 individuals (female = 108) aged between 18 and 53 years (M = 35.66; SD = 7.42) participated in the study. The unidimensional model solution displayed good fit. However, the exploratory structural equation modelling specification considering two correlated but distinct dimensions of enjoyment showed a better fit. This study was the first attempt to examine the possible existence of two dimensions within the eight-item PACES measure. The distinct aspect of the current research is to emphasize the complex and constant process of instrument validation. Scales should be viewed as a continuous process, and future methodological procedures will increase our understanding of instrument examination with more innovative statistical approaches.


enjoyment, exploratory analysis satisfaction, fun

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