Nebojsa Trajkovic1, Goran Sporis2, Tomislav Vlahovic2, Dejan Madic1, Marko Gusic1
1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad, Serbia
2University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia
Post-Match Changes in Muscle Damage Markers among U-21 Soccer Players
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2018, 7(2), 49-53 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.180908
This study aimed to investigate the effect of official soccer matches on selected markers of muscle damage in U-21 soccer players. A group of 19 trained, healthy male soccer players from the junior category took part in this study. Blood samples were assessed pre-match and immediately after a match in response to a competitive (2×45 min) soccer match. Analysis was performed for muscle damage and inflammatory markers. Significant differences between two measures (before and after soccer match) exist in Aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and Myoglobin. Plasma K+ significantly decreased after the match (p<0.05), whereas plasma Na+ decreased slightly. This study showed that most selected markers of muscle damage were influenced by a soccer match. However, results remain inconsistent because of the influence of the type, duration, and intensity of exercise. Moreover, some markers show great variability among individuals.
football, fatigue, junior players, competitive match
View full article
(PDF – 101KB)
Andersson, H., Ekblom, B., & Krustrup, P. (2008). Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: Movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(2), 113-122.
Ascensão, A., Rebelo, A., Oliveira, E., Marques, F., Pereira, L., & Magalhães, J. (2008). Biochemical impact of a soccer match—analysis of oxidative stress and muscle damage markers throughout recovery. Clinical Biochemistry, 41(10), 841-851.
Bangsbo, J., Madsen, K., Kiens, B., & Richter, E. (1996). Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man. The Journal of physiology, 495(2), 587-596.
Bangsbo, J., Mohr, M., & Krustrup, P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. Journal of sports sciences, 24(07), 665-674.
Brancaccio, P., Lippi, G., & Maffulli, N. (2010). Biochemical markers of muscular damage. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 48(6), 757-767.
Burger-Mendonca, M., Bielavsky, M., & Barbosa, F. (2008). Liver overload in Brazilian triathletes after half-ironman competition is related muscle fatigue. Annals of Hepatology, 7(3), 245-248.
Byrne, C., & Eston, R. (2002). Maximal-intensity isometric and dynamic exercise performance after eccentric muscle actions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(12), 951-959.
Cairns, S. P., & Dulhunty, A. F. (1995). High‐frequency fatigue in rat skeletal muscle: role of extracellular ion concentrations. Muscle and Nerve, 18(8), 890-898.
Cooper, C., Vollaard, N. B., Choueiri, T., & Wilson, M. (2002). Exercise, free radicals and oxidative stress. Biochemical Society Transactions, 30(2), 280-285.
Davies, R. C., Rowlands, A. V., & Eston, R. G. (2009). Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on ventilatory and perceived exertion responses to moderate and severe intensity cycle exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(1), 11-19.
Fatouros, I. G., Chatzinikolaou, A., Douroudos, I. I., Nikolaidis, M. G., Kyparos, A., Margonis, K., . . . Katrabasas, I. (2010). Time-course of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status responses following a soccer game. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(12), 3278-3286.
Finaud, J., Lac, G., & Filaire, E. (2006). Oxidative stress. Sports Medicine, 36(4), 327-358.
Fraser, S. F., Li, J. L., Carey, M. F., Wang, X. N., Sangkabutra, T., Sostaric, S., . . . McKenna, M. J. (2002). Fatigue depresses maximal in vitro skeletal muscle Na+-K+-ATPase activity in untrained and trained individuals. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(5), 1650-1659.
Goldfarb, A. H. (1999). Nutritional antioxidants as therapeutic and preventive modalities in exercise-induced muscle damage. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 24(3), 249-266.
Goldfarb, A. H., Garten, R. S., Cho, C., Chee, P., & Chambers, L. A. (2011). Effects of a fruit/berry/vegetable supplement on muscle function and oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 43(3), 501-508.
Gregson, W., Drust, B., Atkinson, G., & Salvo, V. (2010). Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(4), 237-242.
Halson, S. L. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 139-147.
Hammouda, O., Chaouachi, A., Ferchichi, S., Kallel, C., & Souissi, N. (2012). Effect of short-term maximal exercise on biochemical markers of muscle damage, total antioxidant status, and homocysteine levels in football players. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(4), 239.
Heisterberg, M. F., Fahrenkrug, J., Krustrup, P., Storskov, A., Kjær, M., & Andersen, J. L. (2013). Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(5), 1260-1271.
Hopkins, W., Marshall, S., Batterham, A., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine+ Science in Sports+ Exercise, 41(1), 3.
Ispirlidis, I., Fatouros, I. G., Jamurtas, A. Z., Nikolaidis, M. G., Michailidis, I., Douroudos, I., . . . Katrabasas, I. (2008). Time-course of changes in inflammatory and performance responses following a soccer game. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18(5), 423-431.
Kostrzewa-Nowak, D., Nowak, R., Chamera, T., Buryta, R., Moska, W., & Cieszczyk, P. (2015). Post-Effort Chances in C-Reactive Protein Level Among Soccer Players at the End of the Training Season. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1399-1405.
Lazarim, F. L., Antunes-Neto, J. M., da Silva, F. O., Nunes, L. A., Bassini-Cameron, A., Cameron, L.-C., . . . de Macedo, D. V. (2009). The upper values of plasma creatine kinase of professional soccer players during the Brazilian National Championship. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(1), 85-90.
MacIntosh, B. R., & Rassier, D. E. (2002). What is fatigue? Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 27(1), 42-55.
Magalhães, J., Rebelo, A., Oliveira, E., Silva, J. R., Marques, F., & Ascensão, A. (2010). Impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test versus soccer match on physiological, biochemical and neuromuscular parameters. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(1), 39-48.
Meister, S., Faude, O., Ammann, T., Schnittker, R., & Meyer, T. (2013). Indicators for high physical strain and overload in elite football players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(2), 156-163.
Mougios, V. (2007). Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes. British journal of sports medicine, 41(10), 674-678.
Muñoz, A., & Costa, M. (2013). Nutritionally mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2013.
Neubauer, O., König, D., & Wagner, K.-H. (2008). Recovery after an Ironman triathlon: sustained inflammatory responses and muscular stress. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 104(3), 417-426.
Nielsen, J. J., Mohr, M., Klarskov, C., Kristensen, M., Krustrup, P., Juel, C., & Bangsbo, J. (2004). Effects of high‐intensity intermittent training on potassium kinetics and performance in human skeletal muscle. The Journal of physiology, 554(3), 857-870.
Nybo, L., Girard, O., Mohr, M., Knez, W., Voss, S., & Racinais, S. (2013). Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery after exercise in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45(5), 860-868.
Reilly, T. (1997). Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15(3), 257-263.
Sejersted, O. M., & Sjøgaard, G. (2000). Dynamics and consequences of potassium shifts in skeletal muscle and heart during exercise. Physiological Reviews, 80(4), 1411-1481.
Shanely, R., Nieman, D., Henson, D., Jin, F., Knab, A., & Sha, W. (2013). Inflammation and oxidative stress are lower in physically fit and active adults. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(2), 215-223.
Shirreffs, S. M., Sawka, M. N., & Stone, M. (2006). Water and electrolyte needs for football training and match-play. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(07), 699-707.
Silva, J. R., Ascensao, A., Marques, F., Seabra, A., Rebelo, A., & Magalhaes, J. (2013). Neuromuscular function, hormonal and redox status and muscle damage of professional soccer players after a high-level competitive match. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(9), 2193-2201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2633-8
Speranza, L., Grilli, A., Patruno, A., Franceschelli, S., Felzani, G., Pesce, M., . . . Felaco, M. (2007). Plasmatic markers of muscular stress in isokinetic exercise. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, 21(1/2), 23.
Stoner, L., Lucero, A. A., Palmer, B. R., Jones, L. M., Young, J. M., & Faulkner, J. (2013). Inflammatory biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease. Clinical Biochemistry, 46(15), 1353-1371.
Suzuki, K., Totsuka, M., Nakaji, S., Yamada, M., Kudoh, S., Liu, Q., . . . Sato, K. (1999). Endurance exercise causes interaction among stress hormones, cytokines, neutrophil dynamics, and muscle damage. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(4), 1360-1367.
Takahashi, I., Umeda, T., Mashiko, T., Chinda, D., Oyama, T., Sugawara, K., & Nakaji, S. (2007). Effects of rugby sevens matches on human neutrophil-related non-specific immunity. British journal of sports medicine, 41(1), 13-18.
Takarada, Y. (2003). Evaluation of muscle damage after a rugby match with special reference to tackle plays. British journal of sports medicine, 37(5), 416-419.
Taylor, J. L., Allen, G. M., Butler, J. E., & Gandevia, S. (2000). Supraspinal fatigue during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the human elbow flexors. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(1), 305-313.
Thompson, D., Williams, C., Garcia-Roves, P., McGregor, S., McArdle, F., & Jackson, M. (2003). Post-exercise vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(3-4), 393-400.
Urhausen, A., & Kindermann, W. (2002). Diagnosis of overtraining. Sports Medicine, 32(2), 95-102.
Vollaard, N. B., Shearman, J. P., & Cooper, C. E. (2005). Exercise-induced oxidative stress. Sports Medicine, 35(12), 1045-1062.
Wiewelhove, T., Raeder, C., Meyer, T., Kellmann, M., Pfeiffer, M., & Ferrauti, A. (2015). Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training. PloS One, 10(10), e0139801.