1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia
2Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
3Lithuanian Sports University, Faculty of Sports Education, Kaunas, Lithuania
4Comenius University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Bratislava, Slovakia
5Harvard University, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA
Is Social Capital Associated with Academic Achievement in Lithuanian High-school Students? A Population-based Study
The present study aims to determine the associations between family, neighbourhood, and school social capital with academic achievement among Lithuanian high-school students. The study included 1854 high-school students (901 males and 953 females) aged 16-18 years. At the end of the school year, the students’ achievements were measured as an average grade. Family, neighbourhood, and school social capital were identified, indicating trust and understanding perceived from those social settings. Gender, body-mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and physical activity were also measured and used as covariates. Academic achievement was associated with family social capital, horizontal school trust and reciprocity at school. Family support, cooperation, and trust between students positively affect their achievement. Policies and strategies for a healthy environment for children need to be incorporated, especially within the school system for students’ better progress.
social capital, adolescents, academic success, multiple regression analyses
Barkauskaitė, M., & Sinkevičienė, R. (2012). Mokinių mokymosi motyvacijos skatinimas kaip vadybinė problema. Pedagogika, (106), 49-59. https://doi.org/10.15823/p.2016.56
Buzaitytė-Kašalynienė, J. (2004). Šeimos įtaka pasiekimams mokykloje. Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, (13), 28-43. https://doi.org/10.15388/ActPaed.2004.13.9632
Coleman, J.S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Sociological Review, 94, 95–120.
Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., et al. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & Science in Sports Exercise, 35(8), 1381–1395. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB
Edwards, D., & Mullis, F. (2001). Creating a sense of belonging to build safe schools. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 57, 196–203.
Emeljanovas, A., Malinauskas, R., Valentine, I., & Hardman, K. (2015). The relationship between the assessment system in physical education in the former soviet state of Lithuania and physical activity levels of adults. Kineziologija, 47(2), 242-252.
Gottfried, M.A. (2010). Evaluating the relationship between student attendance and achievement in urban elementary and middle schools: and instrumental variables approach. American Educational Research Journal, 47(2), 434-465. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209350494
Haghighat, E. (2005). School social capital and pupils’ academic performance. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 15(3), 213–235. https://doi.org/10.1080/09620210500200141
Huang, L. (2009). Social capital and student achievement in Norwegian secondary schools. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 320–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.11.004
Idler, El., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 38(1), 21-37.
Israel, G.D., Beaulieu, L.J., & Hartless, G. (2001). The influence of family and community social capital on educational achievement. Rural Sociology, 66(1), 43-68.
Johnson, P.B., & Richter, L. (2002). The relationship between smoking, drinking, and adolescents’ self-perceived health and frequency of hospitalization: analyses from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(3), 175-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00317-2
Jurkėnaitė, G., & Cibulskaitė, N. (2014). IX–X klasių mokinių matematikos mokymosi pasiekimus lemiančios edukacinės aplinkos mokymo (si) proceso ir socialinių psichologinių sąlygų charakteristikos. Pedagogika, (114), 85-95.
Juska, A., Johnstone, P., & Pozzuto, R. (2004). The changing character of criminality and policing in post-socialist Lithuania: From fighting organized crime to policing marginal populations? Crime, law and social change, 41(2), 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:CRIS.0000016224.65627.68
Kessler, R.C., Barker, P.R., Colpe, L.J., Epstein, J.F., Gfroerer, J.C., Hiripi, E., Howes, M.J., Normand, S.L., Mandersceid, R.W., Walters, E.E., & Zaslavsky, A.M. (2003). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(2), 184–189.
Kim, D. H., & Schneider, B. (2005). Social capital in action: Alignment of parental support in adolescents’ transition to postsecondary education. Social Forces, 84(2), 1181–1206. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2006.0012
Legault, L., Green-Demers, I., & Pelletier, L. (2006). Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic amotivation and the role of social support. Journal of educational psychology, 98(3), 567. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1687
Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Perkins, D.D., Santinello, MN., Elgar, F.J., Morgan, A., & Mazzardis, S. (2012). Family affluence, school and neighborhood context and adolescents’ civic engagement: a cross-national study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(1-2), 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-012-9489-7
McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: what hurts, what helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Meltzer, H., Vostanis, P., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2007). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood trustworthiness and safety and their mental health. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 48(12), 1208-1213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01800.x
Morrow, V. (1999). Conceptualising social capital in relation to the wellbeing of children and young people: A critical review. The Sociological Review, 44(4), 744–765. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00194
Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and research in Education, 7(2), 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318
Parcel, T. L., & Dufur, M. J. (2001). Capital at home and at school: Effects on child social adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(1), 32–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00032.x
Parcel, T. L., & Dufur, M. J. (2009). Family and school capital explaining regional variation in reading and math achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 27(3), 157–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2009.04.003
Parcel, T.L., & Menaghan, E.G. (1994). Early parental work, family social capital, and early childhood outcomes. American Journal of Sociology, 99(4), 972-1009. https://doi.org/10.1086/230369
Parcel, T.L., Menaghan, E.G. (1990). Maternal working conditions and children’s verbal facility: studying the intergenerational transmission of inequality from mothers to young children. Social Psychology, 53(2), 132–147. https://doi.org/10.2307/2786675
Parcel, T.L., Menaghan, E.G. (1993). Family social capital and children’s behavior problems. Social Psychological Quarterly, 56(2), 120–135. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787001
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1037110003-066X.55.1.68
Rodgers, K. B., & Rose, H. A. (2002). Risk and resiliency factors among adolescents who experience marital transitions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 1024–1037. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.01024.x
Rodriguez, J. (2009). Predicting the military career success of United States air force academy cadets. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1), 65-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327X09337371
Rosenfeld, L. B., Richman, J. M., & Bowen, G. L. (2000). Social support networks and school outcomes: The centrality of the teacher. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(3), 205-226. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007535930286
Sanders, M. G. (1998). The effects of school, family, and community support on the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Urban education, 33(3), 385-409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085998033003005
Schwartz, S. J., Mason, C. A., Pantin, H., Wang, W., Brown, C. H., Campo, A. E., et al. (2009). Relationships of social context and identity to problem behavior among high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Youth Society, 40(4), 541–570. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X08327506
Stockard, J., & Mayberry, M. (1992). Effective educational environments. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Subramanian, S.V., Kim, D.J., Kawachi, I. (2002). Social trust and self-rated health in us communities: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Urban Health, 79(1), 21–34. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/jurban/79.suppl_1.S21
Wang, Z., Byrne, N.M., Kenardy, J.A., Hills, A.P. (2005). Influences of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the body dissatisfaction and eating behaviour of Australian children and adolescents. Eating Behaviors, 6(1), 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2004.05.001
Weller, S., & Bruegel, I. (2009). Children’s Place’in the Development of Neighborhood Social Capital. Urban Studies, 46(3), 629-643. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098008100998
Wilson, W.J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.