Risto Marttinen1, Ray N. Fredrick III2, Stephen S. Silverman2
1California State University, Fullerton, College of Health & Human Development, Department of Kinesiology, Fullerton, CA, USA
2Columbia University, Teachers College, New York, NY, USA
Middle School Students’ Free-living Physical Activity on Physical Education Days, Non-physical Education Days, and Weekends
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2018, 7(1), 5-12 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.180301
This study measured students’ free-living Physical Activity (PA) in order to examine activity patterns of youth. Students (N=221) in 12-classes wore accelerometers to measure their PA over six weeks in and out-of-school while participating in a fitness unit. PA was significantly higher during Non-PE-Days and PE-Days than on Sundays. PA was significantly higher during baseline than weeks five and six. There were no significant differences between boys and girls in the number steps taken. Eighth-grade students had the lowest PA levels. On average, the students were attaining 60 minutes of MVPA. Students, however, did not often reach national recommendations. Girls reached their national recommendations five out of six weeks on days that they participated in PE. The results suggest that specific subgroups, such as adolescent girls, are getting the recommended PA but only when the PA is structured. A spike in PA during the first week suggested a possible motivational effect of the accelerometer.
physical education, adolescent, accelerometer
View full article
(PDF – 171KB)
Brooke, H.L., Corder, K., Atkin, A.J., & van Sluijs, E.M.F. (2014). A systematic literature review with meta-analyses of within- and between-day differences in objectively measured physical activity in school-aged children. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 44(10), 1427–1438.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (1997). Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46(No. RR-6). Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr4606.pdf
Chen, S., Kim, Y., & Gao, Z. (2014). The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. BMC Public Health, 14, 110.
Chinapaw, M.J.M., de Niet, M., Verloigne, M., Bourdeaudhuij, I. De, Brug, J., & Altenburg, T. M. (2014). From sedentary time to sedentary patterns: Accelerometer data reduction decisions in youth. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e111205. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111205
Comte, M., Hobin, E., Majumdar, S.R., Plotnikoff, R.C., Ball, G.D.C., & McGavock, J. (2013). Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38(2), 115–119.
Crouter, S.E., Schneider, P.L., Karabulut, M., & Bassett, D.R. (2003). Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), 1455–1460.
Dismore, H., & Bailey, R. (2011). Fun and enjoyment in physical education: Young people’s attitudes. Research Papers in Education, 26(4), 499–516.
Dudley, D., Okely, A., Pearson, P., & Cotton, W. (2011). A systematic review of the effectiveness of physical education and school sport interventions targeting physical activity, movement skills and enjoyment of physical activity. European Physical Education Review, 17(3), 353–378.
Eaton, D.K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Flint, K.H., Hawkins, J., … Wechsler, H. (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries, 61(4), 1–162.
Gibbone, A., Rukavina, P., & Silverman, S. (2010). Technology integration in secondary physical education: Teachers’ attitudes and practice. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 3(1), 27-42.
Ho, V., Simmons, R.K., Ridgway, C.L., van Sluijs, E.M.F., Bamber, D.J., Goodyer, I.M., … Corder, K. (2013). Is wearing a pedometer associated with higher physical activity among adolescents? Preventive Medicine, 56(5), 273–277.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Jago, R., Anderson, C.B., Baranowski, T., & Watson, K. (2005). Adolescent patterns of physical activity: Differences by gender, day, and time of day. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(5), 447–452.
Kang, M., Marshall, S.J., Barreira, T.V., & Lee, J.O. (2009). Effect of pedometer-based physical activity interventions: A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(3), 648–655.
Luepker, R. V, Perry, C. L., Mckinlay, S. M., Nader, P. R., Parcel, G. S., Stone, E. J., … Wu., M. (1996). Outcomes of a field trial to improve children’s dietary patterns and physical activity. JAMA, 275(10).
Marttinen, R., & Fredrick, R. (in press 2016). Fitness Integrated with Technology (F.I.T.) Curriculum: Connecting Technology and Physical Education. In Fédération Internationale d’ Éducation Physique: Connecting Technology and Physical Education.
McKenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., & Nader, P. R. (1991). SOFIT: System for observing fitness instruction time. Journal of Teacher Education, 11(2), 195–205.
McKenzie, T.L., Prochaska, J.J., Sallis, J.F., & LaMaster, K.J. (2004). Coeducational and single-sex physical education in middle schools: Impact on physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(4), 446–449.
Menickelli, J., Sidman, C., Claxton, D., Grube, D., Leonard, E., & Lowell, S. (2013, March). Convergent Validity of an Activity Monitor With a Research-Grade Accelerometer. Poster Presented at the Research Consortium for the 2013 AAHPERD National Convention and Exposition, Charlotte, NC.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2009). Appropriate Instructional Practice Guidelines for Elementary Physical Education Reston, VA: Author.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). (2012). 2012 Shape of the nation report: Status of physical education in the USA. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Pate, R. R., Ross, R., Dowda, M., Trost, S. G., & Sirard, J. R. (2003). Validation of a 3-Day physical activity recall instrument in female youth. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 257–265.
Pate, R.R., Stevens, J., Webber, L.S., Dowda, M., Murray, D.M., Young, D.R., & Going, S. (2009). Age-related change in physical activity in adolescent girls. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 275–282.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington: DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
President’s Council for Fitness, Sports and Nutrition (2015). President’s Challenge. Retrieved from: https://www.presidentschallenge.org/tools-resources/docs/PALA+_log_zine.pdf
Prochaska, J.J., Sallis, J., Slymen, D.J., & McKenzie, T.L. (2003). A longitudinal study of children’s enjoyment of physical education. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15(2), 170–178.
Rich, C., Geraci, M., Griffiths, L., Sera, F., Dezateux, C., & Cortina-Borja, M. (2013). Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: Defining minimum wear time. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e67206 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067206
Sallis, J.F., Carlson, J.A., & Mignano, A.M. (2012). Promoting youth physical activity through physical education and after-school programs. Adolescent Medicine State of the Art Reviews, 23(3), 493–510.
Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Alcaraz, J.E., Kolody, B., Faucette, N., & Hovell, M.F. (1997). The effects of a 2-year physical education program ( SPARK ) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. American Journal of Public Health, 87(8), 1328-1334.
Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., & Marshall, S. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(2), 127-134.
Scheers, T., Philippaerts, R., & Lefevre, J. (2012). Variability in physical activity patterns as measured by the SenseWear Armband: How many days are needed? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(5), 1653–1662.
Silverman, S., & Solmon, M. (1998). The unit of analysis in field research: Issues and approaches to design and data analysis. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 17, 270–284.
Stewart, J. A, Dennison, D. A, Kohl, H. W., & Doyle, J. A. (2004). Exercise level and energy expenditure in the TAKE 10! in-class physical activity program. The Journal of School Health, 74(10), 397–400.
Trost, S.G., Mciver, K.L., & Pate, R.R. (2005). Conducting accelerometer-based activity assessments in field-based research. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(Supplement), S531–S543.
Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C.L., Beets, M.W., Belton, S., Cardon, G.M., Duncan, S., … Blair, S. N. (2011). How many steps/day are enough? for children and adolescents. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 78 https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-78
Tudor-Locke, C., Johnson, W.D., & Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2010). Accelerometer-determined steps per day in US children and youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(16), 2244–2250.
Tudor-Locke, C., McClain, J.J., Hart, T.L., Sisson, B.S., & Washington, T.L. (2009). Pedometry methods for assessing free-living adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 175-184.
U.S. Department of Education. Promoting educational excellence for all Americans (2002). Retrieved from: https://www2.ed.gov/policy/rights/guid/ocr/edlite-t9-guidelines-ss.html.
West, S. W., & Shores, K. A. (2014). Does HOPSports promote youth physical activity in physical education classes? Physical Educator, 71(1), 16-40.