1Faculty of Sport Sciences, Coaching Training Department, Trabzon University, Trabzon, Turkey
Evaluation of Different Equations for Resting Metabolic Rate Prediction in Female Combat Sports Athletes
Only a few studies have produced equations that can estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) in female athletes, but the accuracy of these equations for combat athletes has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 12 different equations which are commonly using to determine resting metabolite rate (RMR) in the literature. Twenty-three female combat sport athletes (24.23± 3.39 years; 166.8 ± 5.3 cm; 63.13±6.53 kg; 8.78±3.19 experience years.; 56.40±3.43 VO2 mL/kg/min) were participated this study in voluntarily basis. A cross-validation approach used to compare the accuracy of 12 commonly prediction equations with measured RMR by indirect calorimetry to determine RMR in female combat sports athletes. All the predictive equation was underestimated RMR when compared with the measured RMR (p < 0.05) and the smallest mean difference (92.46 ± 210.38 kcal·d-1) was observed for Altman & Dittmer equation amongst the 12 predictive equations. The Altman & Dittmer equation was accurately predicted 16 out of 30 subjects’ RMR value within the range ±10%. However, based on the Bland–Altman plots, the prediction equations were not accurately nor precisely predicted RMR in the current sample of female combat sport athletes. The results in the present study showed that the Altman & Dittmer equation is most suitable equation to predict RMR amongst 12 equations. Although the Altman & Dittmer equation was resulted with smallest mean difference, it seems that there is need to further research with longitudinal approach to understand the effects of training intensity and body mass changes on RMR in order to develop the formulas already exist used commonly.
energy expenditure, indirect calorimetry, prediction, martial arts
Altman, P., & Dittmer, D. (1968). Energy metabolism at various weights. Metabolism, 343-345.
Balci, A., Badem, E. A., Yılmaz, A. E., Devrim-Lanpir, A., Akınoğlu, B., Kocahan, T., Hasanoğlu, A., Hill, L., Rosemann, T., & Knechtle, B. (2021). Current predictive resting metabolic rate equations are not sufficient to determine proper resting energy expenditure in Olympic Young Adult National Team Athletes. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 625370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890252/pdf/fphys-12-625370.pdf
Benton, M. J., Hutchins, A. M., & Dawes, J. J. (2020). Effect of menstrual cycle on resting metabolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 15(7), e0236025. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236025&type=printable
Bouchard, C., Tremblay, A., Després, J.-P., Nadeau, A., Lupien, P. J., Thériault, G., Dussault, J., Moorjani, S., Pinault, S., & Fournier, G. (1990). The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. New England Journal of Medicine, 322(21), 1477-1482.
Bullough, R. C., Gillette, C. A., Harris, M. A., & Melby, C. L. (1995). Interaction of acute changes in exercise energy expenditure and energy intake on resting metabolic rate. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 61(3), 473-481.
Compher, C., Frankenfield, D., Keim, N., Roth-Yousey, L., & Group, E. A. W. (2006). Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(6), 881-903.
Cunningham, J. J. (1980). A reanalysis of the factors influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 33(11), 2372-2374.
De Lorenzo, A., Bertini, I., Candeloro, N., & Piccinelli, R. (1999). A new predictive equation to calculate resting metabolic rate in athletes. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 39(3), 213.
de Oliveira, E. P., Orsatti, F. L., Teixeira, O., Maestá, N., & Burini, R. C. (2011). Comparison of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults. Journal of obesity, 2011.
Delsoglio, M., Dupertuis, Y. M., Oshima, T., van der Plas, M., & Pichard, C. (2020). Evaluation of the accuracy and precision of a new generation indirect calorimeter in canopy dilution mode. Clinical nutrition, 39(6), 1927-1934.
Devrim-Lanpir, A., Kocahan, T., Deliceoðlu, G., Tortu, E., & Bilgic, P. (2019). Is there any predictive equation to determine resting metabolic rate in ultra-endurance athletes? Prog. Nutr, 21, 25-33.
Fields, J. B., Magee, M. K., Jones, M. T., Askow, A. T., Camic, C. L., Luedke, J., & Jagim, A. R. (2022). The accuracy of ten common resting metabolic rate prediction equations in men and women collegiate athletes. European journal of sport science, 1-10.
Freire, R., Pereira, G., Alcantara, J. M., Santos, R., Hausen, M., & Itaborahy, A. (2022). New Predictive Resting Metabolic Rate Equations for High-Level Athletes: A Cross-validation Study. Medicine and science in sports and exercise.
Frings-Meuthen, P., Henkel, S., Boschmann, M., Chilibeck, P. D., Alvero Cruz, J. R., Hoffmann, F., Möstl, S., Mittag, U., Mulder, E., & Rittweger, N. (2021). Resting energy expenditure of master athletes: accuracy of predictive equations and primary determinants. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 641455.
Graf, S., Pichard, C., Genton, L., Oshima, T., & Heidegger, C. P. (2017). Energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated patients: the weight of body weight! Clinical nutrition, 36(1), 224-228.
Harris, J. A., & Benedict, F. G. (1918). A biometric study of human basal metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 4(12), 370-373.
Haugen, H. A., Chan, L. N., & Li, F. (2007). Indirect calorimetry: a practical guide for clinicians. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 22(4), 377-388.
Herring, J., Mole, P., Meredith, C., & Stern, J. (1992). Effect of suspending exercise training on resting metabolic rate in women. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 24(1), 59-65.
Hudson, J. F., Cole, M., Morton, J. P., Stewart, C. E., & Close, G. L. (2019). Daily changes of resting metabolic rate in elite rugby union players. Medicine & science in sports & exercise, 52(3), 637-644.
Jagim, A. R., Camic, C. L., Askow, A., Luedke, J., Erickson, J., Kerksick, C. M., Jones, M. T., & Oliver, J. M. (2019). Sex differences in resting metabolic rate among athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(11), 3008-3014.
Jagim, A. R., Camic, C. L., Kisiolek, J., Luedke, J., Erickson, J., Jones, M. T., & Oliver, J. M. (2018). Accuracy of resting metabolic rate prediction equations in athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 32(7), 1875-1881.
Jeziorek, M., Szuba, A., Kujawa, K., & Regulska-Ilow, B. (2023). Comparison of actual and predicted resting metabolic rate in women with lipedema. Lymphatic Research and Biology.
Joseph, M., Gupta, R. D., Prema, L., Inbakumari, M., & Thomas, N. (2017). Are predictive equations for estimating resting energy expenditure accurate in Asian Indian male weightlifters? Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21(4), 515.
Livesey, G. (1987). Energy and protein requirements the 1985 report of the 1981 Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Nutrition Bulletin, 12(3), 138-149.
MacKenzie-Shalders, K., Kelly, J. T., So, D., Coffey, V. G., & Byrne, N. M. (2020). The effect of exercise interventions on resting metabolic rate: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of sports sciences, 38(14), 1635-1649.
Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Ackerman, K. E., Blauwet, C., Constantini, N., Lebrun, C., Lundy, B., Melin, A., & Meyer, N. (2018). International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 28(4), 316-331.
Müller, M. J., Bosy-Westphal, A., Klaus, S., Kreymann, G., Lührmann, P. M., Neuhäuser-Berthold, M., Noack, R., Pirke, K. M., Platte, P., & Selberg, O. (2004). World Health Organization equations have shortcomings for predicting resting energy expenditure in persons from a modern, affluent population: generation of a new reference standard from a retrospective analysis of a German database of resting energy expenditure. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 80(5), 1379-1390.
Nonsa-Ard, R., Aneknan, P., Tong-Un, T., Honsawek, S., Leelayuwat, C., & Leelayuwat, N. (2022). Telomere Length Is Correlated with Resting Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity in Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(21), 13336.
Norton, K., & Olds, T. (2001). Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th century: causes and consequences. Sports medicine, 31, 763-783.
O'Neill, J. E. R. G., Walsh, C. S., McNulty, S. J., Gantly, H. C., Corish, M. E., Crognale, D., & Horner, K. (2022). Resting metabolic rate in female rugby players: differences in measured versus predicted values. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 36(3), 845-850.
Oshima, T., Dupertuis, Y. M., Delsoglio, M., Graf, S., Heidegger, C.-P., & Pichard, C. (2019). In vitro validation of indirect calorimetry device developed for the ICALIC project against mass spectrometry. Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 32, 50-55.
Speakman, J. R., & Selman, C. (2003). Physical activity and resting metabolic rate. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(3), 621-634.
Speakman, J. R., & Westerterp, K. R. (2010). Associations between energy demands, physical activity, and body composition in adult humans between 18 and 96 y of age. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 92(4), 826-834.
ten Haaf, T., & Weijs, P. J. (2014). Resting energy expenditure prediction in recreational athletes of 18–35 years: confirmation of Cunningham equation and an improved weight-based alternative. PloS one, 9(10), e108460.
Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501-528.
Thompson, J., & Manore, M. M. (1996). Predicted and measured resting metabolic rate of male and female endurance athletes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96(1), 30-34.
Thurairajasingam, N., Palaniapan, T. P., Bhojaraja, V. S., Matpady, P., Naik, V. R., & Shetty, J. K. (2022). The Influence of Resting Metabolic Rate in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review. International Medical Journal, 29(4), 228-232.
Tinsley, G. M., Graybeal, A. J., & Moore, M. L. (2019). Resting metabolic rate in muscular physique athletes: validity of existing methods and development of new prediction equations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 44(4), 397-406.
Tortu, E., Deliceoğlu, G., Kocahan, T., & Hasanoğlu, A. (2017). İndirekt Kalorimetre İle Ölçülen Dinlenik Metabolik Hız Değerlerinin Bazı Kestirim Formülleri İle Karşılaştırılması. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 28(2), 103-114.
Watson, A. D., Zabriskie, H. A., Witherbee, K. E., Sulavik, A., Gieske, B. T., & Kerksick, C. M. (2019). Determining a resting metabolic rate prediction equation for collegiate female athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(9), 2426-2432.