kaufen sie steroide online in deutschland
Bilateral Asymmetry and the Relationship Between Unilateral Isokinetic Strength and Balance Performance in Male Adolescent Football Players - Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

Cíntia França1,2,3, Francisco Martins1,2, Diogo V. Martinho4, Andreas Ihle5,6,7, Adilson Marques8,9, Hugo Sarmento4, Filipe Manuel Clemente10,11, Krzysztof Przednowek12, Pedro Campos2,13,14, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia1,2,6

1Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
2LARSYS, Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Portugal
3Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
4University of Coimbra, Research Unit for Sport and Physical Education (CIDAF), Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Coimbra, Portugal
5Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
6Center for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
7Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES—Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives, Lausanne, Switzerland
8CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
9ISAMB, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
10Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, Viana do Castelo, Portugal
11Instituto de Telecomunicações, Delegação da Covilhã, Lisboa, Portugal
12Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Medical College, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland
13Department of Informatics Engineering and Interactive Media Design, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal
14WoWSystems Informática Lda, Funchal, Portugal

Bilateral Asymmetry and the Relationship Between Unilateral Isokinetic Strength and Balance Performance in Male Adolescent Football Players

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2023, 12(2), 33-39 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.230905


Muscle strength and balance ability have been related to injury prevention and game actions performance in football. The aims of this study are twofold: (1) to examine bilateral asymmetries in isokinetic strength and balance assessments, and (2) to evaluate the relationship between muscle strength and balance measures. Eighty-eight male adolescent football players were assessed for body composition (InBody 770), isokinetic strength (Biodex System 4 Pro Dynamometer), and balance performance (Biodex Balance System). Paired samples t-tests were conducted to determine bilateral differences in strength and balance. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regression analyses evaluated the relationship between strength and balance. No significant bilateral strength differences were observed in knee flexors (KF) and knee extensors (KE) peak torque (PT) scores. No bilateral differences were found for balance measures, except in the lateromedial stability index, which was better while performing with the preferred leg (p ≤ 0.01; d = 0.29). Significant correlations were found between KE PT and balance tasks (p ≤ 0.01). KF and KE PT shared between 18 and 22% of the common variance in the overall stability index in the non-preferred and preferred leg, respectively. Monitoring strategies of bilateral asymmetries may be crucial to enhance performance in tasks underpinned by unilateral movements, such as changes of direction and sprints, and to identify players at risk of injury. Adopting these strategies during the early stages of football training might be crucial for players’ long-term development.


soccer, peak torque, knee flexors, knee extensors, youth

View full article
(PDF – 385KB)


Aagaard, P., Simonsen, E. B., Magnusson, S. P., Larsson, B., & Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (1998). A new concept for isokinetic hamstring: quadriceps muscle strength ratio. The American journal of sports medicine, 26(2), 231-237.

Al Attar, W. S. A., Khaledi, E. H., Bakhsh, J. M., Faude, O., Ghulam, H., & Sanders, R. H. (2022). Injury prevention programs that include balance training exercises reduce ankle injury rates among soccer players: a systematic review. Journal of physiotherapy.

Barone, R., Macaluso, F., Traina, M., Leonardi, V., Farina, F., & Di Felice, V. (2011). Soccer players have a better standing balance in nondominant one-legged stance. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 2, 1.

Booysen, M. J., Gradidge, P. J.-L., & Watson, E. (2015). The relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(20), 2157-2165.

Chtara, M., Rouissi, M., Bragazzi, N. L., Owen, A. L., Haddad, M., & Chamari, K. (2018). Dynamic balance ability in young elite soccer players: implication of isometric strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 58(4), 414-420.

Cohen, J. (1988). 1988: Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Croisier, J.-L., Forthomme, B., Namurois, M.-H., Vanderthommen, M., & Crielaard, J.-M. (2002). Hamstring muscle strain recurrence and strength performance disorders. The American journal of sports medicine, 30(2), 199-203.

Croisier, J.-L., Ganteaume, S., Binet, J., Genty, M., & Ferret, J.-M. (2008). Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. The American journal of sports medicine, 36(8), 1469-1475.

Croisier, J.-L., Réveillon, V., Ferret, J., Cotte, T., Genty, M., Popovic, N., Mohty, F., Faryniuk, J., Ganteaume, S., & Crielaard, J.-M. (2003). Isokinetic assessment of knee flexors and extensors in professional soccer players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 11(1).

Fox, K. T., Pearson, L. T., & Hicks, K. M. (2023). The effect of lower inter-limb asymmetries on athletic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos One, 18(6), e0286942.

França, C., Ihle, A., Marques, A., Sarmento, H., Martins, F., Henriques, R., & Gouveia, É. R. (2022). Physical Development Differences between Professional Soccer Players from Different Competitive Levels. Applied Sciences, 12(14), 7343.

Gkrilias, P., Zavvos, A., Fousekis, K., Billis, E., Matzaroglou, C., & Tsepis, E. (2018). Dynamic balance asymmetries in pre-season injury-prevention screening in healthy young soccer players using the Modified Star Excursion Balance Test—a pilot study. Journal of physical therapy science, 30(9), 1141-1144.

González-Fernández, F. T., Martínez-Aranda, L. M., Falces-Prieto, M., Nobari, H., & Clemente, F. M. (2022). Exploring the Y-Balance-Test scores and inter-limb asymmetry in soccer players: differences between competitive level and field positions. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 14(1), 1-13.

Hart, N. H., Nimphius, S., Weber, J., Spiteri, T., Rantalainen, T., Dobbin, M., & Newton, R. (2016). Musculoskeletal asymmetry in football athletes: a product of limb function over time.

Helme, M., Tee, J., Emmonds, S., & Low, C. (2021). Does lower-limb asymmetry increase injury risk in sport? A systematic review. Physical therapy in sport, 49, 204-213.

Iga, J., George, K., Lees, A., & Reilly, T. (2009). Cross‐sectional investigation of indices of isokinetic leg strength in youth soccer players and untrained individuals. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5), 714-719.

McCurdy, K., & Langford, G. (2006). The relationship between maximum unilateral squat strength and balance in young adult men and women. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(2), 282.

McLester, C. N., Nickerson, B. S., Kliszczewicz, B. M., & McLester, J. R. (2020). Reliability and agreement of various InBody body composition analyzers as compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy men and women. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 23(3), 443-450.

Menzel, H.-J., Chagas, M. H., Szmuchrowski, L. A., Araujo, S. R., de Andrade, A. G., & de Jesus-Moraleida, F. R. (2013). Analysis of lower limb asymmetries by isokinetic and vertical jump tests in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(5), 1370-1377.

Muehlbauer, T., Schwiertz, G., Brueckner, D., Kiss, R., & Panzer, S. (2019). Limb differences in unipedal balance performance in young male soccer players with different ages. Sports, 7(1), 20.

Ruiz-Pérez, I., Ayala, F., Puerta, J. M., Elvira, J. L., De Ste Croix, M., Hernández-Sánchez, S., & Vera-Garcia, F. J. (2019). A Bayesian Network approach to study the relationships between several neuromuscular performance measures and dynamic postural control in futsal players. Plos One, 14(7), e0220065.

Rutkowska-Kucharska, A. (2020). Asymmetry of lower limb strength and jumping ability of young soccer players. Acta of bioengineering and biomechanics, 22(1).

Sannicandro, I., Rosa, R., De Pascalis, S., & Piccinno, A. (2012). The determination of functional asymmetries in the lower limbs of young soccer players using the countermovement jump. The lower limbs asymmetry of young soccer players. Science & Sports, 27(6), 375-377.

Scinicarelli, G., Offerhaus, C., Feodoroff, B., Froboese, I., & Wilke, C. (2022). Functional performance and interlimb asymmetries of young football players during single-leg jump tests. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 52(1), 76-86.

Śliwowski, R., Marynowicz, J., Jadczak, Ł., Grygorowicz, M., Kalinowski, P., & Paillard, T. (2021). The relationships between knee extensors/flexors strength and balance control in elite male soccer players. Peerj, 9, e12461.

Soylu, Ç., Altundağ, E., Akarçeşme, C., & Ün Yildirim, N. (2020). The relationship between isokinetic knee flexion and extension muscle strength, jump performance, dynamic balance and injury risk in female volleyball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 5(13), 502-514.

Suchomel, T. J., Nimphius, S., & Stone, M. H. (2016). The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance. Sports Medicine, 46(10), 1419-1449.

Teixeira, J., Carvalho, P., Moreira, C., & Santos, R. (2014). Isokinetic assessment of muscle imbalances and bilateral differences between knee extensores and flexores’ strength in basketball, footbal, handball and volleyball athletes. International Journal of Sports Science 4(1), 1-6.

Thorpe, J. L., & Ebersole, K. T. (2008). Unilateral balance performance in female collegiate soccer athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(5), 1429-1433.

Van Dyk, N., Bahr, R., Whiteley, R., Tol, J. L., Kumar, B. D., Hamilton, B., Farooq, A., & Witvrouw, E. (2016). Hamstring and quadriceps isokinetic strength deficits are weak risk factors for hamstring strain injuries: a 4-year cohort study. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(7), 1789-1795.

Van Tittelboom, V., Alemdaroglu-Gürbüz, I., Hanssen, B., Heyrman, L., Feys, H., Desloovere, K., Calders, P., & Van den Broeck, C. (2022). Reliability of isokinetic strength assessments of knee and hip using the Biodex System 4 dynamometer and associations with functional strength in healthy children. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, 817216.

Wisloff, U., Castagna, C., Helgerud, J., Jones, R., & Hoff, J. (2004, Jun). Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med, 38(3), 285-288.

Yamada, R. K. F., Arliani, G. G., Almeida, G. P. L., Venturine, A. M., Santos, C. V. d., Astur, D. C., & Cohen, M. (2012). The effects of one-half of a soccer match on the postural stability and functional capacity of the lower limbs in young soccer players. Clinics, 67(12), 1361-1364.

Zakas, A. (2006). Bilateral isokinetic peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles in professional soccer players with dominance on one or both two sides. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 46(1), 28.