Konstantinos Gkagkanas1, Dimitris Hatzimanouil1, Trifon Totlis2, Georgia Stavropoulou1

1Laboratory for the Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
2Aristotle University School of Medicine

The Effect of an Exercise Program on the Biomechanics of the Shoulder Girdle in Overhead Shooting in High-level Handball Players

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2023, 12(2), 17-24 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.230903


andball athletes are subjected to high loads, especially during the process of throwing or shooting overhead. These athletes often complain of pain and report unexplained loss of throwing velocity and throwing control. Shoulder dyskinesia and overuse syndrome have been identified as risk factors among elite handball athletes. Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of the throwing phase is vital for the exercise professional. This study evaluates the effect of an interventional exercise program on shoulder girdle biomechanics and overhead shooting. The sample consisted of 20 high level handball athletes from Greece. The athletes were divided into two groups: 10 in the study group, who were given the exercise program, and 10 in the control group, who only engaged in in-team handball training. Before and after the program, the following measurements were performed: a) angular measurements of abduction, adduction, flexion and extension of the shoulder; b) isokinetic evaluation of abduction flexion and adduction extension of the shoulder joint, at three angular velocities (60°/sec, 180°/sec and 300°/sec). Inferential statistics showed that there was a statistically significant difference in angular measurements with a reduction in range of motion for 10 of the study group. In the isokinetic assessment there was a statistically significant difference, in the 180°/sec velocities in flexion and extension, and in the deficit of flexion of both shoulders. In conclusion, the interventional exercise program had, to some extent, a beneficial effect on muscle strengthening of the shoulder girdle. The results of this study may suggest training guidelines, provide important information to exercise professionals, and provide feedback to handball athletes.


handball, goniometry, isokinetic dynamometry, shoulder girdle, biomechanics, scapular dyskinesia

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