1Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, AL
2University of North Alabama, Florence, AL
Collegiate soccer players consistently underestimate practice sweat losses regardless of practice sweat loss volume
Soccer play in hot environments can result in major fluid deficit. If competitors are unsure of their sweat losses, accurate fluid intake needs during and between training bouts cannot be established. This study evaluated sweat loss estimation accuracy among collegiate male soccer players (n = 17) following three, 90-minute practice ses- sions in the heat. Data were collected during the last week of pre-season training during a morning (P1; wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) = 31.2 °C) and same day afternoon (P2; WBGT = 26.9 °C) practice. The third estimation took place after a regular season morning practice (P3; WBGT = 31.5 °C) the following week. Change in nude body mass, with adjustment for fluid intake and urine output, from pre- to post-practice was assessed to determine sweat loss volume. After each practice participants estimated their sweat loss volume by filling cups with a vol- ume of water equivalent to the volume of sweat they believed they lost during the practice session. Sweat losses differed (p < 0.05) among all 3 practices (P1 2.181 ± 0.693; P2 1.706 ± 0.474; P 3.360 ± 0.956 L). Estimated sweat loss volume was less (p < 0.001) than actual sweat losses for P1 (0.804 ± 0.329 L; 40.2 ± 21.5%), P2 (0.672 ± 0.324 L; 40.1 ± 19.9%) and P3 (1.076 ± 0.489 L; 31.8 ± 11.6%), but there were no differences in percentage accuracy. Players estimations of sweat loss trended up and downward with actual sweat losses, but players greatly and consistently underestimated sweat losses. Visual depiction of sweat loss volume could potentially increase awareness of be- tween training bout fluid intake needs of soccer players training in hot conditions.
Football, hydration, perceptual measures
Al-Jaser, T. A., & Hasan, A. A. (2006). Fluid loss and body composition of elite Kuwaiti soccer players during a soccer match. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 46(2), 281-285. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16823359
Ali, A., Gardiner, R., Foskett, A., & Gant, N. (2011). Fluid balance, thermoregulation and sprint and passing skill performance in female soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 21(3), 437-445.
Aragón-Vargas, L. F., Moncada-Jiménez, J., Hernández-Elizondo, J., Barrenechea, A., & Monge-Alvarado, M. (2009). Evaluation of pre-game hydration status, heat stress, and fluid balance during professional soccer competition in the heat. European Journal of Sport Science, 9(5), 269-276.
Arnaoutis, G., Kavouras, S. A., Kotsis, Y. P., Tsekouras, Y. E., Makrillos, M., & Bardis, C. N. (2013). Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in suboptimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 23(3), 245-251. https://doi.org/2011-0189 [pii]
Castro-Sepulveda, M., Astudillo, J., Letelier, P., & Zbinden-Foncea, H. (2016). Prevalence of Dehydration Before Training Sessions, Friendly and Official Matches in Elite Female Soccer Players. J Hum Kinet, 50, 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0145
Chapelle, L., Tassignon, B., Rommers, N., Mertens, E., Mullie, P., & Clarys, P. (2020). Pre-exercise hypohydration prevalence in soccer players: A quantitative systematic review. Eur J Sport Sci, 20(6), 744-755. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1669716
Clarke, H. E., Carpenter, R. S., Spain-Mansmann, K., Taylor, J. K., & Schubert, M. M. (2021a). Estado de Hidratación de Jugadoras de Fútbol Universitarias Durante Días de Entrenamiento y Partidos Consecutivos. MHSalud, 18(1), 154-164.
Clarke, H. E., Carpenter, R. S., Spain-Mansmann, K., Taylor, J. K., & Schubert, M. M. (2021b). The Hydration Status of Female Collegiate Soccer Players Over Consecutive Training and Match Days. MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud, 18(1), 1-11.
Davis, B. A., O’Neal, E., Johnson, S., & Farley, R. S. (2019). Hot Training Conditions Inhibit Adequate Ad Libitum Recovery Fluid Intake of Runners. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(6), 1322-1333.
Duffield, R., McCall, A., Coutts, A. J., & Peiffer, J. J. (2012). Hydration, sweat and thermoregulatory responses to professional football training in the heat. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(10), 957-965.
Edwards, A. M., Mann, M. E., Marfell-Jones, M. J., Rankin, D. M., Noakes, T. D., & Shillington, D. P. (2007). Influence of moderate dehydration on soccer performance: physiological responses to 45 min of outdoor match-play and the immediate subsequent performance of sport-specific and mental concentration tests. Br J Sports Med, 41(6), 385-391. https://doi.org/bjsm.2006.033860 [pii] 10.1136/bjsm.2006.033860
Gibson, J. C., Stuart-Hill, L. A., Pethick, W., & Gaul, C. A. (2012). Hydration status and fluid and sodium balance in elite Canadian junior women’s soccer players in a cool environment. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(5), 931-937.
Kiitam, U., Voitkevica, L., Timpmann, S., Pontaga, I., Ereline, J., Unt, E., & Ööpik, V. (2018). Pre-Practice Hydration Status in Soccer (Football) Players in a Cool Environment. Medicina (Kaunas), 54(6), 102.
Klimesova, I., Krejci, J., Botek, M., McKune, A. J., Jakubec, A., Neuls, F., . . . Valenta, M. (2022). Prevalence of Dehydration and the Relationship with Fluid Intake and Self‐Assessment of Hydration Status in Czech First League Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 82(1), 101-110.
Love, T. D., Baker, D. F., Healey, P., & Black, K. E. (2018). Measured and perceived indices of fluid balance in professional athletes. The use and impact of hydration assessment strategies. Eur J Sport Sci, 18(3), 349-356. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1418910
Mattausch, N. R., Domnik, K., Koehler, K., Schaenzer, W., & Braun, H. (2017). Case study: Hydration intervention improves pre-game hydration status in female collegiate soccer players. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 27(5), 475-481.
McDermott, B. P., Anderson, S. A., Armstrong, L. E., Casa, D. J., Cheuvront, S. N., Cooper, L., . . . Roberts, W. O. (2017). National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for the Physically Active.J Athl Train, 52(9), 877-895. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-52.9.02
McGregor, S. J., Nicholas, C. W., Lakomy, H. K., & Williams, C. (1999). The influence of intermittent high-intensity shuttle running and fluid ingestion on the performance of a soccer skill. J Sports Sci, 17(11), 895-903. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365452
Mohr, M., Nólsøe, E. L., Krustrup, P., Fatouros, I. G., & Jamurtas, A. Z. (2021). Improving hydration in elite male footballers during a national team training camp–an observational case study. Physical activity and nutrition, 25(4), 10.
Muth, T., Pitchett, R., Pritchett, K., DePaepe, J., & Blank, R. (2019). Hydration Status and Perception of Fluid Loss in Male and Female University Rugby Union Players. International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(3), 859.
O’Neal, E., Boy, T., Davis, B., Pritchett, K., Pritchett, R., Nepocatych, S., & Black, K. (2020). Post-Exercise Sweat Loss Estimation Accuracy of Athletes and Physically Active Adults: A Review. Sports, 8(8), 113.
Phillips, S. M., Sykes, D., & Gibson, N. (2014). Hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during consecutive training sessions. J Sports Sci Med, 13(4), 817.
Sekiguchi, Y., Adams, W. M., Curtis, R. M., Benjamin, C. L., & Casa, D. J. (2019). Factors influencing hydration status during a National Collegiate Athletics Association division 1 soccer preseason. J Sci Med Sport, 22(6), 624-628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.005
Shaver, L. N., O’Neal, E. K., Hall, E. E., & Nepocatych, S. (2018). No Performance or Affective Advantage of Drinking versus Rinsing with Water during a 15-km Running Session in Female Runners. Int J Exerc Sci, 11(2), 910-920. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30147823
Silva, R. P., Mündel, T., Natali, A. J., Bara Filho, M. G., Lima, J. R., Alfenas, R. C., . . . Marins, J. C. (2011). Fluid balance of elite Brazilian youth soccer players during consecutive days of training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(7), 725-732.
Thigpen, L. K., Green, J. M., & O’Neal, E. K. (2014). Hydration profile and sweat loss perception of male and female division II basketball players during practice. J Strength Cond Res, 28(12), 3425-3431. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000549
Voitkevica, L., Pontaga, I., Timpmann, S., & Ööpik, V. (2014). Pre-training hydration status of well-trained soccer players in moderate temperature autumn and cool winter. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 4(95).
Volpe, S. L., Poule, K. A., & Bland, E. G. (2009). Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes. J Athl Train, 44(6), 624-629. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-44.6.624
Wainwright, J. B., Wallen, J. N., Sanchez, A. M., DeAnda, N., Gonzales, X. F., Willoughby, D. S., . . . Newmire, D. E. (2020). The Assessment of Hydration Status and Renal Markers Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in NCAA Division I Female Soccer Players During Preseason Training in South Texas: A Pilot Study. Paper presented at the International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings.
Wang, H., Early, K. S., Theall, B. M., Lowe, A. C., Lemoine, N. P., Marucci, J., . . . Johannsen, N. M. (2020). Effects of field position on fluid balance and electrolyte losses in collegiate women’s soccer players. Medicina (Kaunas), 56(10), 502.
Williams, C. A., & Blackwell, J. (2012). Hydration status, fluid intake, and electrolyte losses in youth soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance, 7(4).