Mohammad Fayiz AbuMoh'd1, Samir Qasim1, Nesreen Bataineh2, Loay Salman3

1Yarmouk University, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Sports/Movement Sciences, Irbid, Jordan
2Yarmouk University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Irbid, Jordan
3Jordan University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Irbid, Jordan

A Combination of Exercise and Therapy with Cabergoline Attenuate Disturbances of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones in Hyperprolactinemic Male Patients

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2020, 9(2), 35-41 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.200906


This study aimed to investigate whether cabergoline therapy alone for six months or in combination with a light exercise programme for an additional three months can attenuate hyperprolactinemia in 13 male patients (range: 22 to 45 yrs.) through measuring pituitary-gonadal hormones including prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and total testosterone. The exercise programme consisted of walking, brisk walking, jogging, and running for three months, during which the intensity and duration of exercise were gradually increased. All the patients performed the exercise programme at 6.30 AM to exclude the effects of the circadian rhythm. The exercise programme was performed at an intensity below 160 beats per min to ensure filling of the heart with blood during ventricular diastole. Blood samples were collected from each patient on three occasions: before treatment, at the end of cabergoline therapy, and after the combination of light exercise and cabergoline. At the end of cabergoline therapy, descriptive data revealed that serum prolactin levels were decreased while the other hormones were increased but without returning to the normal range, except for one patient. However, at the end of the combination procedure, most hormones, namely prolactin and testosterone, were returned to the normal range in most patients. In conclusion, light exercise combined with cabergoline therapy for additional 3 months after 6 months of cabergoline therapy alone returned hormones in most patients to normal range probably due to improved mood and decreased hostility as a result of tuberoinfundibular pathway activity.


hypogonadism, hypoglycaemia, tuberoinfundibular pathway, acetylcholine, galactorrhoea

View full article
(PDF – 156KB)


Abbiss, C. R., & Laursen, P. B. (2005). Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Medicine, 35(10), 865-898.

Alpak, G., Unal, A., Bulbul, F., Akosy, I., Demir, B., & Svas, H. A. (2014). Hyperprolactinemia due to paliperdone palmitate and treatment with Aripiprazole. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24(3), 253-256.

Bailey, S. P., Davis, J. M., & Ahlborn, E. N. (1993). Neuroendocrine and substrate responses to altered brain 5-HT activity during prolonged exercise to fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 74(6), 3006-3012.

Barker, J. B., Mellaliey, S. D., McCarthy, P. J., Jones, M. V., & Moran, A. (2013). A review of single-case research in sport psychology 1997-2012: Research trends and future directions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 25(1), 4-32.

Buckworth, J., Dishman, R. K., O'Connor, P. J., & Tomporowski, P. D. (2013). Exercise psychology. 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Chapurin, N., Wang, C., Steinberg, D. M., & Jang, D. W. (2016). Hyperprolactinemia secondary to allergic fungal sinusitis compressing the pituitary gland. Case Reports in Otolaryngology, 2016, 1-3.

Dogan, A. B., Arduc, A., Tuna, M. M., Nasiroglu, I. N., Isik, S., Berker, D., & Guler, S. (2016). Evaluation of atherosclerosis after cessation of cabergoline therapy in patients with prolactinoma. Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, 16, 440-447.

EL-Beheiry, A., Souka, A., EL-Kamshoushi, A., Hussein, S., & EL-Sabah, K. (1988). Hyperprolactinemia and impotence. Archives of Andrology, 21, 211-214.

Ghadirian, H., Shirani, M., Ghazi-Mirsaeed, S., Mohebi, S., & Alimohamadi, M. (2018). Pituitary apoplexy during treatment of prolactinoma with cabergoline. Asian Journal Neurosurgery, 13(1), 93-95.

Grossman, A., & Sutton, J. R. (1985). Endorphins: What are they? How are they measured? What is their role in exercise? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 17, 74-81.

Gulleroglu, K., Olgac, A., Bayrakci, U., Erdogan, O., Kinik, S. T., & Baskin, E. (2012). Hyperprolactinemia as a rare cause of hypertension in chronic renal failure. Renal Failure, 34(6), 792-794.

Inci Kenar, A. N., & Sozeri Varma, G. (2014). Hyperprolactinemia with Aripiprazole: a case report and review of the literature. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24(3), 257-260.

Ishikawa, H., Kaneko, S., Ohashi, M., Nakagawa, K., & Hata, M. (1993). Retrograde ejaculation accompanying hyperprolactinemia. Archives of Andrology, 30, 153-155.

Khare, S., Lila, A. R., Patil, R., Phadke, M., Kerkar, P., Bandgar, T., & Shah, N. S. (2017). Long-term cardiac (valvulopathy) safety of cebergoline in prolactinoma. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21(1), 154-159.

Kilic, A., Ozturk, A., Deveci, E., & Nrpinar, I. (2018). Development of hyperprolactinemia induced by the addition of Bupropion to Venlafaxine XR treatment. Bezmialem Science, 6, 150-152.

Kulshreshtha, B., Pahuja, I., Kothari, D., Sharma, N., Gupta, S., & Mittal, A. (2017). Menstrual cycle abnormalities in patients with prolactinoma and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 21(4), 545-550.

Laufer, N., Margalioth, E. J, Livshin, J., Ben-David, M., & Schenker, J. G. (1981). Effect of bromocriptine treatment on male infertility associated with hyperprolactinemia. Archives of Andrology, 6, 343-346.

Majumdar, A., & Mangal, N. S. (2013). Hyperprolactinemia. Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, 6(3), 168-175.

Nishimura, K., Matsumiya, K., Tsuboniwa, M., Koga, M., Miura, H., Tsujimura, A., Uchida, K., Kondoh, N., Kitamura, M., & Okuyama, A. (1999). Bromocriptine for infertile males with mild hyperprolactinemia: hormonal and spermatogenic effects. Archives of Andrology, 43, 207-213.

Oldham, J. S., Zimmerman, J. B., & Hotfield, B. D. (2019). Depression and anxiety disorders. In: Moore, G. E, Durstine, J. L., & Painter, P. L. (eds). Exercise management for persons with chronic disease and disabilities USA, American college of sports medicine: Human Kinetics (293-300).

Page, J., & Thelwell, R. (2013). The value of social validation in single case methods in sport and exercise psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 25(1), 61-71.

Palubska, S., Adamiak-Godlewska, A., Winkler, I., Romanek-Piva, K., Rechberger, T., & Gogacz, M. (2017). Hyperprolactinemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause. Menopause Reviw, 16(1), 1-7.

Panidis, D., Rousso, D., Skiadopoulos, S., Panidou, E., & Mamopoulos, M. (1997). Evaluation of semen parameters in men with hyperprolactinemia induced by Metoclopramide. Archives of Andrology, 39, 237-242.

Raveendranthan, D., Rao, N. P., Rao, M. G., Mangot, A. G., Varambally, S., Kesavan, M., Venkatasubramanian, G., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2018). Add-on Aripiprazole for atypical antipsychotic-induced-clinically significant hyperprolactinemia. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 40(1), 38-40.

Sharma, N., Dutta, D., & Sharma, L. K. (2017). Hyperpolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, 9(4), 350-354.

Sperling, S., & Bhatt, H. (2016). Prolactinoma: a massive effect on bone mineral density in a young patient. Case Reports in Endocrinology, 2016, 1-3.

Tirgar-Tabari, S., Sharbatdaran, M., Manafi-Afkham, S., & Montazeri, M. (2016). Hyperprolactinemia and hirsutism in patients without polycyctic ovary syndrome. International Journal of Trichology, 8(3), 130-134.

Toulis, K. A., Robbins, T., Reddy, N., Balachandra, K., Gokhale, H., Cheng, K. K., Karavitaki, N., Wass, J., & Nirantharakumar, K. (2018). Males with prolactinoma are at increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. Clinical Endocrinology, 88, 71-76.

Yamashita, M., & Yamamoto, T. (2014). Tryptophan and kynurenic acid may produce an amplified effect in central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder. International Journal of Tryptophan Research, 7, 9-14.

Yancar-Demir, E., & Sayin, A. (2014). Prolongation of hyperprolactinemia by Clozapine: a case report. Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24(4), 371-375.