Betul Coskun1, Gurcan Unlu1, Bahman Golshaei1, Settar Kocak1, Sadettin Kirazcı1
1Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Ankara, Turkey
Comparison of the Static and Dynamic Balance Between Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Wrestlers
Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2019, 8(1), 11-16 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.190302
Balance is fundamental in sport, especially when there is an opponent. Although balance can be improved with practice, it is highly affected by nervous system disorders, particularly by vestibular disorders and visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic balance between normal and hearing-impaired wrestlers. The participants were 52 young male hearing-impaired wrestlers (n=29, age=18.76±3.54) and normal-hearing athletes (n=23, age=19.09±2.76) competing at the national level. The static and dynamic balance were measured using the stork test on one foot and the Y-balance test (in anterior, posteromedial & posterolateral directions). MANOVA indicated significant differences between groups (Wilks’ L=.284, F12,39=8.21, p<.05, η2=.72). Differences were detected in how long the participant had been active in the sport F(year) (F1,50=145.95, p<.025, η2=.75) and right leg static balance (F1,50=73.63, p<.025, η2=.60). As for the Y balance test, there was also a significant difference in the anterior direction for the right leg (F1,50=4880.66, p<.025, η2=.99) and left leg (F1,50=3563.87, p<.025, η2=.99). Hearing-impaired wrestlers performed better balance abilities in the dynamic balance test of right and left legs in the anterior direction. In contrast, the amount of time active in the sport and the static balance of the right leg were found better in normal-hearing wrestlers. Being better than normal wrestlers only in the anterior direction of the dynamic balance might be due to the differences related to the directions of the test. Future studies are recommended for investigating the reasons for this difference.
balance, hearing-impaired, wrestlers
View full article
(PDF – 99KB)
Ambegaonkar, J. P., Mettinger, L. M., Caswell, S. V., Burtt, A., & Cortes, N. (2014). Relationships between core endurance, hip strength, and balance in collegiate female athletes. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 9(5), 604-616.
Bieć, E., & Kuczyński, M. (2010). Postural control in 13-year-old soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(4), 703-708.
Bressel, E., Yonker, J. C., Kras, J., & Heath, E. M. (2007). Comparison of static and dynamic balance in female collegiate soccer, basketball, and gymnastics athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(1), 42.
Butler, R. J., Southers, C., Gorman, P. P., Kiesel, K. B., & Plisky, P. J. (2012). Differences in soccer players’ dynamic balance across levels of competition. Journal of Athletic Training, 47(6), 616-620.
Effgen, S. K. (1981). Effect of an exercise program on the static balance of deaf children. Physical Therapy, 61(6), 873-877.
El Rendimiento, E. L. O. (2015). Can balance skills predict Olympic wrestling performance?. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 7(1), 19-30.
Eliöz, M., Sitti, S., Koç, M. C., Murt, Z., & Koç, H. (2013). A Study on Static Balance Performance of Healthy and Hearing-Impaired Football Players. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(1), 25-28.
Filingeri, D., Bianco, A., Zangla, D., Paoli, A., & Palma, A. (2012). Is karate effective in improving postural control?. Science of Martial Arts. 8(4), 191-4.
Fotiadou, E., Giagazoglou, P., Kokaridas, D., Angelopoulou, N., Tsimaras, V., & Tsorbatzoudis, C. (2002). Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on the dynamic balance of children with deafness. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(3), 301-309.
Gayle, G. W., & Pohlman, R. L. (1990). Comparative study of the dynamic, static, and rotary balance of deaf and hearing children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70(3), 883-888.
Hosseinimehr, S. H., Norasteh, A. A., Abbasi, A., Tazji, M. K., & Hosseinimehr, S. H. (2009). The comparision of dependency on vision and proprioception in gymnastic, wrestling and soccer. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, 3(4), 332-338.
Hrysomallis, C. (2011). Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Medicine, 41(3), 221-232.
Kitiş, A., Büker, N., Eren, K. E., & Aydın, H. (2015). İşitme engelli kişilerde statik dengeyi etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi. Journal of Kartal Training & Research Hospital, 26(1).
Leong, H. T., Fu, S. N., Ng, G. Y., & Tsang, W. W. (2011). Low-level Taekwondo practitioners have better somatosensory organisation in standing balance than sedentary people. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(8), 1787-1793.
Lindsey, D., & O’Neal, J. (1976). Static and dynamic balance skills of eight year old deaf and hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 49-55.
McLeod, B., & Hansen, E. (1989). Effects of the eyerobics visual skills training program on static balance performance of male and female subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69(3 suppl), 1123-1126.
Melo, R. D. S., Silva, P. W. A. D., Tassitano, R. M., Macky, C. F. S., & Silva, L. V. C. D. (2012). Balance and gait evaluation: comparative study between deaf and hearing students. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 30(3), 385-391.
Nakajima, Y., Kaga, K., Takekoshi, H., & Sakuraba, K. (2012). Evaluation of vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in adults with congenital deafness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115(2), 503-511.
Perrin, P., Deviterne, D., Hugel, F., & Perrot, C. (2002). Judo, better than dance, develops sensorimotor adaptabilities involved in balance control. Gait and Posture, 15(2), 187-194.
Perrot, C., Moes, R., Deviterne, D., & Perrin, P. (1998). Postural adaptations during specific combative sport movements. Science and Sports, 2(13), 64-74.
Perrot, C., Mur, J. M., Mainard, D., Barrault, D., & Perrin, P. H. (2000). Influence of trauma induced by judo practice on postural control. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(5), 292-297.
Reiman, M. P., & Manske, R. C. (2009). Functional testing in human performance. Human Kinetics.
Shaikh, A. A., & Sadhale, A. (2013). Motor proficiency in hearing impaired and healthy children: a comparison. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 5(11), 57.
Siegel, J. C., Marchetti, M., & Tecklin, J. S. (1991). Age-related balance changes in hearing-impaired children. Physical Therapy, 71(3), 183-189.
Tan, J. S. Y., Nonis, K. P., & Chow, J. Y. (2011). The balance control of children with and without hearing impairment in Singapore–A case study. International Journal of Special Education, 26(3).
Taşkın, C., Karakoç, Ö., & Yüksek, S. (2015). İşitme engelli voleybol ve hentbol erkek sporcuların statik denge performans durumlarının incelenmesi. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 3(17), 248-255.
Vestibular Disorder Association. (2008). The human balance system: A complex coordination of central and peripheral systems. Retrieved from www.vestibular.org
Wiegersma, P. H., & Velde, A. V. (1983). Motor development of deaf children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(1), 103-111.
Winter, D. A., Patla, A. E., & Frank, J. S. (1990). Assessment of balance control in humans. Medical Progress Through Technology, 16(1-2), 31-51.
Yağcı, N., Cavlak, U., & Şahin, G. (2004). İşitme engellilerde denge yeteneğinin incelenmesi üzerine bir çalışma. Kulak, Burun, Boğaz ve Baş, Boyun Cerrahisi Dergisi, 3(2), 45-50.