Alliance Kubayi1

1Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Sport, Rehabilitation and Dental Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa

Burnout and Paths to Turnover Intentions among South African Sport Coaches

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2018, 7(2), 43-47 | DOI: 10.26773/mjssm.180907


This study investigated burnout and turnover intentions among 119 South African sport coaches (78 males and 38 females) aged 18 to 64 years (M = 30.28, SD = 9.83 years), who were recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Turnover Intentions Questionnaire. The results showed that sport coaches reported low levels of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, with the exception of depersonalization, demonstrating that sport coaches were less burned out. Of the three subscales of burnout, the highest significant correlation was observed between emotional exhaustion and turnover (r = .227, p < .01). The practical implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.


burnout; sport; coaches; turnover intentions

View full article
(PDF – 89KB)


Caccese, T. M., & Mayerberg, C. K. (1984). Gender differences in perceived burnout of college coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 279–288.

Dale, J., & Weinberg, R. S. (1989). The relationship between coaches’ leadership style burnout. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 1–13.

De Croon, E. M., Sluiter, J. K., Blonk, R. W., Broersen, J.P., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. (2004). Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: A two-year prospective cohort study of truck driver. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 442–454.

Everhart, C. B., & Chelladurai, P. (1998). Gender differences in preferences for coaching as an occupation: The role of self-efficacy, valence, and perceived barriers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(2), 188–200.

Frey, M. (2007). College coaches’ experiences with stress—“problem solvers” have problems too. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 38–57.

Gencay, S., & Gencay, O. A. (2011). Burnout among Judo coaches in Turkey. Journal of Occupational Health, 53, 365–370.

Hjalm, S., Kentta, G., Hassmenan, P., & Gustafsson, H. (2007). Burnout among elite soccer coaches. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30(4), 415–427.

International Council for Coaching Excellence and the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (2012). International Sport Coaching Framework (Version 1.1). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kamphoff, C. S. (2010). Bargaining with patriarchy. Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport, 81(3), 360–372.

Kelley, B. C., Eklund, R. C., & Ritter-Taylor, M. (1999). Stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21, 113–130.

Kilo, R. A., & Hassmen, P. (2016) Burnout and turnover intentions in Australian coaches as related to organisational support and perceived control. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 11(2), 151–161.

Koustelios, A. (2010). Burnout among football coaches in Greece. Biology of Exercise, 6(1), 5–12.

Kubayi, N. A. (2015). Barriers and hindrances experienced by sport coaches in Gauteng Province (Unpublished Master’s thesis). University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg.

Kubayi, N. A., Coopoo, Y., & Morris-Eyton, H.F. (2015). Challenges faced by sport coaches in South Africa. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(3: 1), 724–732.

Kubayi, A., Toriola, A., & Didymus, F. (2018). Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(12), 1378-1384.

Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Nurse turnover: The mediating role of burnout. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 331–339.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1986). The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Maslach, C, Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538–551.

Pastore, D. L., & Judd, M. R. (1993). Gender differences in burnout among coaches of women’s athletic teams at 2-year colleges. Sociology of sport Journal, 10, 205–212.

Raedeke, T. D. (2004). Coach commitment and burnout: A one-year follow-up. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(4), 333–349.

Raedeke, T. D., Granzyk, T. L., & Warren, A. (2000). Why coaches experience burnout: A commitment perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22, 85–105.

Sport Coach UK. (2013). Providing better support to club coaches: the approach taken by England athletics. Coachwise Ltd images.

Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundation of sport and exercise psychology (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Wuest, D. A. & Fisette, J. (2012). Foundation of physical education, exercise science and sport (17th ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Zhang, Y., & Feng, X. (2011). The relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover intention among physicians from urban state-owned medical institutions in Hubei, China: A cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 235.