Bülent Okan Miçooğulları1

1Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Faculty of Education, Department of Physical Education and Sport Education, Nevşehir, Turkey

Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Language Version of the Test of Performance Strategies

Monten. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2017, 6(1), 73-79


The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999) on the Turkish population. The TOPS was designed to assess eight psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition (activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, relaxation, self-talk, and negative thinking) and the same strategies, except negative thinking is replaced by attentional control used in training. The sample of the study included athletes who were training and competing in a wide variety of sports across a broad range of performance standards. The final sample consisted of 433 males (mean ± s: age 22.47 ± 5.30 years) and 187 females (mean ± s: age 20.97 ± 4.78 years), 620 athletes in total (mean ± s: age 21.25 ± 4.87 years) who voluntarily participated; TOPS was administered to all participants. Afterward, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted by Analysis Moments of Structures (AMOS) 18. Comparative fit index (CFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used to verify whether the model fit the data. Goodness-of-fit statistics were CFI= .91, NNFI= .92 and RMSEA= .056. These values showed that the tested model is coherent at a satisfactory level. Moreover, results of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a total of four items (two items from competition and two from practice) within the subscale of automaticity have been removed. The 28 items within the remaining seven subscales have been validated. In conclusion, Turkish version of TOPS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition and practices.


Psychological Strategies, Psychological Skills, Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

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