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Bülent Okan Miçooğulları1, Sadettin Kirazcı1, Ömür Serdal Altunsöz2

1Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Physical Education and Sport Department, Ankara, Turkey
2Turkish Football Federation, Analyze and Performance Department, İstanbul, Turkey

Effects of Internal, External and Preference of Attentional Focus Feedback Instructions on Learning Soccer “Head Kick”

Efekti unutrašnjeg, spoljašnjeg i prioritetnog fokusa pažnje kod različitih povratnih informacija tokom učenja udarca po lopti glavom u fudbalu

Abstract (ENG)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of feedback on learning soccer “head kick” of female adolescent. Novices performed head kick during two practice days [one week apart) for two weeks using either internal or external preference attentional focusing instructions. There was also a preference group who choosen their feedback type themselves. Internal focus feedback related with body movements, whereas external focus feedback related with movement effects. The subjects (N=64) were randomly assigned to three groups internal focus feedback group (IFF) (N=15), external focus feedback group (EFF) (N=15) and preference group (PF) (N=34). To promote learning two skill acquisition days for two weeks and one retention day was applied at initial day of third week. Technique of the skill was measured in acquisition days and targeting was measured in retention day. In technique measuring part, EFF group was significantly more accurate than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF). Similar to acquisition phase, EFF group was significantly more successfull than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF )in retention phase. Acquisition and retention phase results indicated significance main effect for attentional focus feedback groups. This study results’ indicated that external focus feedback was more effective than internal focus feedback in terms of acquisition and retention of learning soccer head kick for students with limited amount of knowledge about this skill. This study also indicated that not only the source of attention but also control over to source of attention of preference was an important factor in the amount of retention.

Keywords (ENG)

Attentional Focus, Internal Focus, External Focus, Feedback, Motor Skill, Soccer, Head Kick

Abstract (MNE)

Cilj ove studije je bio da se ispitaju efekti različitih povratnih informacija tokom učenja udarca po lopti glavom u fudbalu kod adolescentkinja. Početnici su izvodili udarac po lopti glavom tokom dvije nedjelje (dva trenažna dana u svakoj) koristeći unutrašnji, spoljašnji ili prioritetni fokus pažnje kod povratnih informacija. Postojala je, takođe i grupa koja je birala tip povratnih informacija po svom nahođenju. Unutrašnji fokus pažnje kod povratnih informacija je bio u vezi sa tjelesnim pokretima, dok je spoljašnji fokus pažnje kod povratnih informacija bio u vezi sa efektima kretanja. Ispitanici (N=64) su nasumično podijeljeni u tri grupe sa unutrašnjim fokusom pažnje (IFF) (N=15), spoljašnjim fokusom pažnje (EFF) (N=15) i prioritetnim fokusom pažnje (PF) (N=34). Bilo je predviđeno da se u prve dvije nedjelje stiče znanje, dok je prvi dan treće nedjelje predstavljao dan za zadržavanje znanja. Tehnika je mjerena tokom dana kada se sticalo znanje, dok je završno mjerenje sprovedeno na dan predviđen za zadržavanje znanja. U dijelu koji se odnosio na tehniku, EFF grupa je bila mnogo preciznija nego IFF grupa, dok je PF grupa pokazala bolje rezultate od obije preostale grupe (PF>EFF>IFF). Slično dijelu koji se odnosio na tehniku, i u drugom dijelu mjerenja EFF grupa je bila značajno uspješnija od IFF grupe, dok je PF grupa pokazala bolje rezultate od obije preostale grupe (PF>EFF>IFF). I u dijelu za sticanje, kao i u dijelu za zadržavanje znanja, rezultati su pokazali značajan uticaj kada su u pitanju grupe sa prioritetnim fokusom pažnje kod različitih povratnih informacija. Ova studija je ukazala da je spoljašnji fokus pažnje bio mnogo efektivniji od unutrašnjeg fokusa pažnje u pogledu sticanja i zadržavanja znanja tokom udarca po lopti glavom u fudbalu kod studenata sa ograničenim znanjem kada je ova vještina u pitanju. Ova studija je, takođe ukazala da nije samo izvor pažnje, već i kontrola nad izvorom pažnje, važan faktor zadržavanja znanja.

Keywords (MNE)

Prioritetni fokus, unutrašnji fokus, spoljašnji fokus, povratna informacija, motorne vještine, fudbal, udarac po lopti glavom

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