1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia
Muscle Damage Indicators after Land and Aquatic Plyometric Training Programmes
Plyometric training is an important part of athletic conditioning with many significant benefits, including improved motor abilities and performance, but it can also increase the serum indices of muscle damage, collagen breakdown, muscle swelling, and soreness. Due to the physical characteristics of water, plyometric training in water presents less eccentric contraction, facilitates faster transition from the eccentric to concentric phase of a jump and offers greater resistance during concentric contraction with acute lower indices of muscle damage. To advance our understanding of the long-term effects of an eight-week plyometric training programme on land and in water on muscle damage indicators (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and serum urea (SU)), two experimental groups of physically active men (a group on land (EG1) and a group in water (EG2)) were tested before and after the first and the last plyometric training to monitor muscle damage indicators and adaptations. The results showed changes in CK activity after both plyometric trainings for EG1 and only after the first training for EG2. Moreover, after the eight-week programme, significant difference was observed in CK activity in comparison with EG2. There were no observed changes in LDH activity while SU showed greater changes for the group on land. The plyometric training programme in water resulted in smaller levels of muscle damage indicators. Although both experimental groups conducted the same plyometric training with the same jump volume, the eccentric and concentric loads were not the same, so it can be concluded that adaptations in muscle damage processes are faster with smaller eccentric loads.
Plyometric training programme, water plyometrics, muscle damage, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, serum urea
Bal, B.S., Singh, S., and Dhesi, S.S. (2012). Effects of 6-week plyometric training on biochemical and physical fitness parameters of Indian jumpers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management, 3(2), 35-40.
Brancaccio, P., Limongelli, F., and Maffulli, N. (2006). Monitoring of serum enzymes in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 96-97.
Brancaccio, P., Maffulli, N., and Limongelli, F. (2007). Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. British Medical Bulletin, 81-82(1), 209–230.
Butova, O.A., and Masalov, S.V. (2009). Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity as an Index of Muscle Tissue Metabolism in Highly Trained Athletes. Human Physiology, 35(1), 127–129.
Chatzinikolaou, A., Fatouros, I.G., Gourgoulis, V., Avloniti, A., Jamurtas, A.Z., Nikolaidis, M.G., Douroudos, I., Michailidis, Y., Beneka, A., Malliou, P., Tofas, T., Georgiadis, I., Mandalidis, D., and Taxildaris, K. (2010). Time course of changes in performance and inflammatory responses after acute plyometric exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 24(5), 1389–1398.
Clarkson, P.M., Kearns, A.K., Rouzier, P., Rubin, R., and Thompson, P.D. (2006). Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(4), 623-627.
Corsetti, R., Barassi, A., Perego, S., Sansoni, V., Rossi, A., Damele, C.A., Melzi D’Eril, G., Banfi, G., and Lombardi, G. (2016). Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers. Amino Acids, 48(1), 183-92
Donoghue, O., Shimojo, H., and Takagi, H. (2011). Impact forces of plyometric exercises performed on land and in water. Sports Health, 3(3).
Eiras, A., Ladeira dos Reis, R., Silva P., Monteiro, A., Preira, R., and Machado, M. Drop Jump and Muscle Damage. Serbian Journal of Sports Science, 3(1-4), 81-84.
Hartmann, U., and Mester, J. (2000). Training and overtraining markers in selected sport events. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(1), 209-215.
Hecksteden, A., Skorski, S., Schwindling, S., Hammes, D., Pfeiffer, M., Kellmann, M., Ferrauti, A., Meyer, T. (2016). Blood-borne markers of fatigue in competitive athletes–results from simulated training camps. PLoSONE, 11(2), 1- 13.
Hoppeler, H. (2016). Moderate load eccentric exercise; a distinct novel training modality. Frontiers in. Physiology, 7, 483.
Kamadulis, S., Skurvydas, A., Snieckus, A., Masiulis, N., Aagaard, P., Dargeviciute, D., and Brazaitis, M. (2011). Monitoring markers of muscle damage during a 3 week periodized drop-jump exercise programme. Journal of Sport Science, 29(4), 345-353.
Kobak, M.S., Rebold, M.J., DeSalvo, R., and Otterstetter, R. (2015). A Comparison of Aquatic-vs. Land-Based Plyometrics on Various Performance Variables. International Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 8(2), 134-144.
Komi, P.V. (2000). Stretch-shortening cycle: a powerful model to study normal and fatigued muscle. Journal of Biomechanics, 33(10), 1197-1206.
Lee, J., Goldfarb, A., Rescino, M., Hegde, S., Patrick, S., and Apperson, K. (2002). Eccentric exercise effect on blood oxidative-stress markers and delayed onset of muscle soreness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(3), 443–448.
Marković, G., and Mikulić, P. (2010). Neuro-muskuloskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Medicine, 40(10), 859-895
Martel, G.F., Harmer, M.L., Logan, J.M., and Parker, C.B. (2005). Aquatic plyometric training increases vertical jump in female volleyball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37, 1814-1819.
Miller, M.G., Berry, D.C., Bullard, S., and Gilders, R. (2002). Comparisons of land-based and aquatic-based plyometric programs during an 8-week training period. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 11(4), 268-283.
Miller, M., Cheatham, C., Porter, A., Ricard, M., Henningar, D., and Berry, D. (2007). Chest-and waist-deep aquatic plyometric training and average force, power and vertical-jump performance. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1, 145-155.
Miyama, M., and Nosaka. K. (2004). Influence of surface on muscle damage and soreness induced by consecutive drop jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 18(2), 206-211.
Mougios, V. (2007). Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 674-678.
Pantoja, P.D., Alberton, C.L., Pilla, C., Vendrusculo, A.P., and Kruel, L.F.M. (2009). Effect of resistive exercise on muscle damage in water and on land. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 23(3), 1051–1054.
Paschalis, V., Giakas, G., Baltzopoulos, V., Jamurtas, A., Theoharis, V., Kotzamanidis, C., and Koutedakis, Y. (2007). The effects of muscle damage following eccentric exercise on gait biomechanics. Gait Posture, 25(2), 236–242.
Potach, D.H., and Chu, D.A. (2000). Plyometric training. In T.R. Baechle, R.W. Earle (Eds.), Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (pp. 427–470). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Robinson, L., Devor, S., Merrick, M., and Buckworth, J. (2004). The Effects of Land versus Aquatic Plyometrics on Power, Torque, Velocity, and Muscle Soreness in Women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 18(2), 84-91.
Schoenfeld, B.J. (2012). Does Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Play a Role in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy? Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 26(5), 1441-1453.
Serrão, F.V., Foerster, B., Spada, S., Morales, M.M.B., Monteiro-Pedro, V., Tannús, A., and Salvini, T.F. (2003). Functional changes of human quadriceps muscle injured by eccentric exercise. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 36(6), 781-786.
Shiran, M., Kordi, M., Ziaee, V., Ravasi, A., and Mansournia, M. (2008). The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on physical performance and muscular enzymes in male wrestlers. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(5), 457-461.
Souglis, A.G., Papapanagiotou, A., Bogdanis, G.C., Travlos, A.K., Apostolidis, N.G., and Geladas, N.D. (2015). Comparison of inflammatory responses to a soccer match between elite male and female players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 29(5), 1227-33.
Stemm, J., and Jacobson, B. (2007). Comparison of land- and aquatic- based plyometric training on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 21(2), 568-571.
Tofas, T., Jamurtas, A., Fatouros, I., Nikolaidis, M., Koutedakis, Y., Sinouris, E., Papageorgakopoulou, N., and Theocharis, D. (2008). Plyometric exercise increases serum indices of muscle damage and collagen breakdown. Journal of Strength and Conditioning. Research, 22(2), 490–496.