1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad, Serbia; Center for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia
2University of the Basque Country, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad, Serbia
4University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Accuracy and Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test in Well-Trained Young Basketball Players
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the specificity of a 20-m shuttle run test (SRT) as a measure of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in young well-trained basketball players. Thirty-four volunteers (mean ± SD; age 15.74 ± 1.23 years, height 187.61 ± 7.95 cm, body mass 74.09 ± 11.61 kg; training experience 6.30 ± 2.15 years) participated in the study. The 20-m shuttle run test was performed wearing a portable gas analyzer (K4b2, Cosmed) to measure VO2max during the test. SRT-derived VO2max underestimated directly measured values (48.91 ± 4,11 vs 55.45 ± 4.98). Mean bias was 6.54 ± 3.89 ml kg-1 min-1 (95% CI- 5.18 to 7.90 ml kg-1 min-1 ). Typical error of the estimate was 3.85 ml/kg/min-1 (95% CI- 3.10 to 5.10 ml kg-1 min-1 ; ES= 0,77). There was a moderate correlation between VO2max directly measured and estimated by SRT (r= 0.65; 95% CI- 0.40 to 0.81, power = 0.84, p < 0.01). Although very popular among coaches, it seems that SRT is not an appropriate field test to measure maximal oxygen consumption in young well-trained basketball players.
Team sports, Field test, Maximal oxygen consumption
Ahmaidi, S., Collomp, K., Caillaud, C., & Préfaut, C. (1992). The effect of shuttle test protocol and the resulting lactacidaemia on maximal velocity and maximal oxygen uptake during the shuttle exercise test. Eurean Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(5), 475-479.
Armstrong, N., Williams, J., & Ringham, D. (1998). Peak oxygen uptake and progressive shuttle run performance in boys aged 11–14 years. British Journal of Physical Education, 19, 10–11.
Baxter-Jones, A., Goldstein, H, and Helms, P. The development of aerobic power in young athletes. J Appl Physiol 75: 1160-1167, 1993.
Beltrami, F.G., Froyd, C., Mauger, A.R., Metcalfe, A.J., Marino, F., & Noakes, T.D. (2012). Conventional testing methods produce submaximal values of maximum oxygen consumption. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46, 23–29.
Ben Abdelkrim, N., Castagna, C., El Fazaa, S., & El Ati, J. (2012). The effect of players’ standard and tactical strategy on game demands in men’s basketball. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2652–2662.
Besier, T.F., Lloyd, D.G., & Ackland, T.R. (2003). Muscle activation strategies at the knee during running and cutting maneuvers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 119-127.
Bishop, D., Edge, J., & Goodman, C. (2004). Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women. European Journal of Applied Physioly, 92, 540–547.
Brewer, J., Ramsbottom, R., & Williams, C. (1988). Multistage fitness test. National Coaching Foundation: Loughborough.
Cooper, S.M., Baker, J.S., Tong, R.J., Roberts, E., & Hanford, M. (2005). The repeatability and criterion related validity of the 20m multistage fitness test as a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in active young men. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 19-26.
Delextrat, A., & Cohen, D. (2008). Physiological testing of basketball players: Toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22, 1066–1072.
Drinkwater, E.J., Hopkins, W.G., McKenna, M.J., Hunt, P.H., & Pyne, D.B. (2007). Modeling age and secular differences in fitness between junior basketball players. Journal of sports medicine t, 25(8):869-78.
Flouris, A.D., & Klentrou, P. (2005). The need for energy equilibrium. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 8(2), 129—133.
Flouris, A.D., Metsios, G., & Koutedakis, Y. (2005). Enhancing the efficacy of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 166–170.
Flouris, A.D., Metsios, G.S., Famisis, K., Geladas, N., & Koutedakis, Y. (2012). Prediction of VO2max from a new field test based on portable indirect calorimetry. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(1), 70-73.
Gore, C.J. (2000). Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Grant, S., Corbett, K., Amjad, A.M., Wilson, J., &Aitchison, T. (1995). A comparison of methods of predicting maximum oxygen uptake. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 147–152.
Hopkins, W.G. (2000a). Analysis of validity by linear regression (Excel spreadsheet). In: A new view of statistics. sportsci.org: Internet Society for Sport Science, sportsci.org/resource/stats/xvalid.xls.
Hopkins, W.G. (2005). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 30, 1–15b.
Houmard, J.A., Costill, D.L., Mitchell, J.B., Park, S.H., & Chenier, T.C. (1991). The role of anaerobic ability in middle distance running performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 62, 40–43.
Kavcic, I., Milic, R., Jourkesh, M., Ostojic, S.M., & Ozkol, M.Z. (2012). Comparative study of measured and predicted VO2max during a multi-stage fitness test with junior soccer players. Kinesiology 4, 1, 18-23.
Kang, J., Chaloupka, E., Mastrangelo, M.A., Biren, G.B., & Robertson, R.J. (2001). Physiological comparison among three maximal treadmill exercise protocols in trained and untrained individuals. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 291-295.
Krustrup, P., Mohr, M., Amstrup, T.,Rysgaard, T., Johansen, J., Steensberg, A., Pedersen, P.K., & Bangsbo J. (2003). The Yo—Yo intermittent recovery test: Physiological response, reliability, and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(4), 697—705.
Liu, N., Plowman, S., & Looney, M. (1992). The reliability and validity of the 20-meter shuttle test in American students 12 to 15 years old. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 63, 360–365.
Marcinik, E.J., Potts, J., Schlabach, G., Will, S., Dawson, P., & Hurley, B.F. (1991). Effects of strength training on lactate threshold and endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 739–743.
McInnes, S.E., Carlson, J.S., Jones, C.J., & McKenna, M.J. (1995). The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition. Journal of Sports Science, 13, 387-397.
McLaughlin, J.E., King, G.A., Howley, E.T., Bassett, D.R., & Ainsworth, B.E. (2001). Validation of the COSMED K4 b2 portable metabolic system. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 280–284.
Meckel, Y., Gottlieb, R., & Eliakim, A. (2009). Repeated sprint tests in young basketball players at diferent game stages. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 107, 273–279.
O’Gorman, D., Hunter, A., Mc Donnacha, C., & Kirwan, J.P. (2000). Validity of field tests for evaluating endurance capacity in competitive and international-level sports participants. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(1), 62–67.
Ostojic, S.M., Mazic, S., & Dikic, N. (2006). Profiling in basketball: physical and physiological characteristics of elite players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(4), 740-744.
Paavolainen, L., Häkkinen, K., Hämäläinen, I., Nummela, A., & Rusko, H. (1999). Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 1527-1533.
Paliczka, V.J., Nichols, A.K., & Boreham, C.A. (1987). A multistage shuttle run as a predictor of running performance and maximal oxygen uptake in adults. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 163-164.
Penry, J.T., Wilcox, A.R., & Yun, J. (2011). Validity and reliability analysis of Cooper’s 12-minute run and the multistage shuttle run in healthy adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(3), 597–605.
Piiper, J., & Spiller, P. (1970). Repayment of O2 dept and resynthesis of high energy phosphates in gastrocnemius muscle of the dog. Journal of Applied Physiology, 28, 657–662.
Ramsbottom, R., Brewer, J., & Williams, C. (1988). A progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(4),141—144.
Ruiz, J.R., Silva, G., Oliviera, N., Ribeiro, J.C., Oliveira, J.F., & Mota, J. (2009). Criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test in youths aged 13–19 years. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(9), 899–906.
Sproule, J., Kunalan, C., McNeill, M., & Wright, H. (1993). Validity of 20-MST for predicting VO2max of adult Singaporean athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 27, 202-204.
St. Clair Gibson, A., Broomhead, S., Lambert, M.I., & Hawley, J.A. (1988). Prediction of maximal oxygen uptake from a 20-m shuttle run as measured directly in runners and squash players. Journal of Sports Science, 16, 331-335.
Stickland, M.K., Petersen, S.R., & Bouffard, M. (2003). Prediction of maximal aerobic power from the 20-m multi-stage shuttle run test. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 28, 272-282.
Stojanovic, D.M., Stojanovic, V.M., Ostojic, S., & Fratric, F. (2007). Is the maximal oxygen consumption single best predictor of shuttle-run test? Serbian Journal of Sports Science, 1(2), 67-73.
Stromme, S.B., Ingjer, F., & Meen, H.D. (1997). Assessment of maximal aerobic power in specifically trained athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 42, 833-877.
Te Wierike, S.C.M., de Jong, M.C., Tromp, E.J.Y., Vuijk, P.J., Lemmink, K.A.P.M., Malina, R.M., Elferink-Gemser, M.T., & Visscher, C. (2014). Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4), 928–934.
Thomas, J.R., Nelson, J.K., Silverman, J. (2005). Research methods in physical activity. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Turner, A.N., & Jeffreys, I. (2010). The Stretch-Shortening Cycle: Proposed Mechanisms and Methods for Enhancement. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 32(4), 87-99.