1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikšić, Montenegro
2University of Novi Sad, ACIMSR, Novi Sad, Serbia
Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults
Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago. As the modern Bosnian and Herzegovinian fall more into the Dinaric racial classification, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Bosnian and Herzegovinian adults as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height and body height, which vary in different ethnic and racial groups. The nature and scope of this study analyzes 212 students (178 men, aged 22.42±2.79 and 34 women, aged 21.56±2.06) from the University of Banjaluka to be subjects. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the ISAK. Means and standard deviations were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within each gender group and between genders were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results have shown that male Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 183.87±7.11 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.50±8.28 cm, while female Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 171.82±6.56 cm tall and have an arm span of 169.85±8.01 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this one have shown that both genders make Bosnian and Herzegovinian population one of the tallest nations on the earth, maybe the tallest one. Moreover, the arm span reliably predicts body height in both genders. However, the estimation equations, which were obtained in Bosnian and Herzegovinians, are substantially different alike in other populations, since arm span was close to body heights: in men 0.73±1.17 cm more than the body height and in women 1.97±1.45 centimeters less than the body height. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each population.
Prediction; Standing Height; Stature; Armspan; Bosnia and Herzegovina
Aggrawal, A.N., Gupta, D., Ezekiel, L.M., & Jindal, S.K. (2000). Statistical estimation of height from arm span in north Indian subjects. Indian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, 44(3), 329-334.
Agnihotri, A.K., Purwar, B., Googoolybe, K., Agnihotri, S., & Jeebun, N. (22007). Estimation of stature by foot length. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 14(5), 279–283.
Agnihotri, A.K., Agnihotri, S., Jeebun, N., & Googoolye, K. (2008). Prediction of stature using hand dimensions. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 15(8), 479-482.
Bidmos, M., & Asala, S. (2005). Calcaneal measurement in estimation of stature of South African blacks. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 126(3), 335-342.
Bidmos, M. (2006). Adult stature reconstruction from the calcaneus of South Africans of European descent. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine, 13(5), 247-252.
Bjelica, D., Popović, S., Kezunović, M., Petković, J., Jurak, G., & Grasgruber, P. (2012). Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Montenegrin Adults. Anthropological Notebooks, 18(2), 69–83.
Brown, J.K., Feng, J.Y., & Knapp, T.R. (2002). Is self-reported height or arm span a more accurate alternative measure of height? Clinical Nursing Research, 11(4), 417-432.
Bodzsár, É., & Zsákai, A. (2008). Secular changes in the pattern of growth in Hungarian children (in Hungarian). Anthropologiai Közlemények, 49, 75-95.
Campobasso, C.P., Di-Vella, G., & Introna, F. (1998). Using scapular measurements in regression formulae for the estimation of stature. Bollettino dellà Societa Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale, 74(7/8), 75-82.
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved on December 14, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html? countryname=Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina&countrycode=bk®ionCode=eur&rank=129#bk/.
Dagbjartsson, A., Thornórsson, A.V., Pálsson, G.I., & Arnórsson, V.H. (2000). Height and weight of Icelandic children 6-20 years of age (In Icelandic). Laeknabladid, 86(7/8), 509-514.
Datta Banik, S. (2011). Arm span as a proxy measure for height and estimation of nutritional status: A study among Dhimals of Darjeeling in West Bengal India. Annals of Human Biology, 38(6), 728–735.
De Lucia, E., Lemma, F., Tesfaye, F., Demisse, T., & Ismail. S. (2002). The use of armspan measurement to assess the nutritional status of adults in four Ethiopian ethnic groups. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(2), 91–95.
Eiben, O.G., & Tóth, G. (2000). Half-a-century of the "Körmend Growth Study". Collegium Antropologicum, 24(2), 431-441.
Fatmah. (2010). Validation of predicted height model based on arm span, knee height and sitting height in Indonesian elderly people. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research, 2(5), 67-73.
Froment, A. (1993). Adaptation biologique et variation dans l'espèce humaine: le cas des Pygmées d'Afrique. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, 5(3/4), 417-448.
Gerhards, G. (2005). Secular variations in the body stature of the inhabitants of Latvia (7th millennium BC – 20th c. AD). Acta medica Lituanica, 12(1), 33-39.
Golshan, M., Amra, B., & Hoghogi, M.A. (2003). Is arm span an accurate measure of height to predict pulmonary function parameters? Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, 59(3), 189-192.
Golshan, M., Crapo, R.O., Amra, B., Jensen, R.I., & Golshan, R. (2007). Arm span as an independent predictor of pulmonary function parameters: validation and reference values. Respirology, 12(3), 361-366.
Hickson, M., & Frost, G. A (2003). comparison of three methods for estimating height in the acutely ill elderly population. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietitian, 16(1), 13-20.
Ilayperuma, I., Nanayakkara, G., & Palahepitiya, N. (2010). A model for the estimation of personal stature from the length of forearm. International Journal of Morphology, 28(4), 1081-1086.
Institute for Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Population of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to censuses 1879–1991 (in Bosnian). Retrieved on December 14, 2014, from http://www.fzs.ba/Dem/Popis/PopisiStanB.htm/.
Institute of International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association. National Report on the Development and State of the Art of Adult Learning and Education (in Bosnian). Retrieved on December 14, 2014, from http://www. unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/INSTITUTES/UIL/confintea/pdf/National_Reports/Europe%20-%20North%20 America/Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina.pdf/.
Jalzem, P.F., & Gledhill, R.B. (1993). Predicting height from arm span measurements. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics, 13(6), 761-765.
Juresa, V., Musil, V., & Tiljak, M.K. (2012). Growth charts for Croatian school children and secular trends in past twenty years. Collegium Antropologicum, 36(s1), 47-57.
Kanchan, T., Menezes, R.G., Moudgil, R., Kaur, R., Kotian, M.S., & Garg, R.K. (2008). Stature estimation from foot dimensions. Forensic Science International, 179(2/3), 241e1-5.
Karadag, B., Ozturk, A.O., Sener, N., & Altuntas, Y. (2012). Use of knee height for the estimation of stature in elderly Turkish people and their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 82-89.
Kułaga, Z., Litwin, M., Tkaczyk, M., Palczewska, I., Zajączkowska, M., Zwolińska, D., Krynicki, T., Wasilewska, A., Moczulska, A., Morawiec-Knysak, A., Barwicka, K., Grajda, A., Gurzkowska, B., Napieralska, E., & Pan, H. (2011). Polish 2010 growth references for school-aged children and adolescents. European journal of pediatrics, 170(5), 599-609.
Kwok, T., & Whitelaw, M.N. (1991). The use of arm span in nutritional assessment of the elderly. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 39(5), 492-496.
Marfell-Jones, M., Olds, T., Stew, A.D., & Carter, J.E.L. (2006). International standards for anthropometric assessment. Potchesfstroom: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry.
Menezes, R.G., Kanchan, T., Kumar, G.P., Rao. P.P.J., Lobo, S.W., Uysal, S., Krishan, K., Kalthur, S.G., Nagesh, K.R., & Shettigar, S. (2009). Stature estimation from the length of the sternum in South Indian males: A preliminary study. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 16(8), 441-443.
Menezes, R.G., Nagesh, K.R., Monteiro, F.N.P., Kumar, G.P., Kanchan, T., Uysal, S., Rao, P.P.J., Rastogi, P., Lobo, S.W., & Kalthur, S.G. (2011). Estimation of stature from the length of the sternum in South Indian females. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 18(6), 242-245.
Mohanty, S.P., Babu, S.S., & Nair, N.S. (2001). The use of arm span as a predictor of height. A study of South Indian women. Journal of Orthopedics Surgery, 9(1), 19-23.
Nagesh, K.R., & Pradeep, K.G. (2006). Estimation of stature from vertebral column length in South Indians. Legal Medicine, 8(5), 269-272.
Pineau, J.C., Delamarche, P. & Božinović, S. (2005). Average height of adolescents in the Dinaric Alps (in French). Comptes Rendus Biologies, 328(9), 841–846.
Popović, S., Bjelica, D., Georgiev, G., Hadžić, R., & Akpinar, S. (in press). Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Macedonian Adults. International Journal of Morphology.
Popović, S., Bjelica, D., & Hadžić, R. (2014). Average body height of adolescents in Montenegro. In Proceedings book of the 13th International Sport Sciences Congress (462-463). Konya: Selcuk University.
Popović, S., Bjelica, D., Molnar, S., Jakšić, D., & Akpinar, S. (2013). Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Serbian Adults. International Journal of Morphology, 31(1), 271-279.
Quanjer, P.H., Capderou, A., Mazocioglu, M.M., Aggarwal, A., Popovic, S., Datta Banik, S., Tayie, F.A.K., Golshan, M., Ip, M.S.M., Zelter, M. (2014). All-age relationship between arm span and height in different ethnic groups. European Respiratory Journal, 44(4), 905-912.
Rao, P.P.J., Sowmya, J., Yoganarasimha, K., Menezes, R.G., Kanchan, T., & Aswinidutt, R. (2009). Estimation of stature from cranial sutures in a South Indian male population. International journal of legal medicine, 123(3), 271-276.
Rastogi, P., Nagesh, K.R., & Yoganarasimha, K. (2008). Estimation of stature from hand dimensions of north and south Indians. Legal Medicine, 10(4), 185-189.
Reeves, S.L., Varakamin, C., & Henry, C.J. (1996). The relationship between arm-span measurements and height with special reference to gender and ethnicity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50(6), 398-400.
Sahni, D., Sanjeev, Sharma, P., Harjeet, Kaur, G., & Aggarwal, A. (2010). Estimation of stature from facial measurements in northwest Indians. Legal Medicine, 12(1), 23–27.
Sanli, S.G., Kizilkanat, E.D., Boyan, N., Ozsahin, E.T., Bozkir, M.G., Soames, R., Erol, H., & Oguz, O. (2005). Stature estimation based on hand length and foot length. Clinical Anatomy, 18(8), 589-596.
Starc, G., & Strel, J. (2011). Is there a rationale for establishing Slovenian body mass index references of school-aged children and adolescents? Anthropological Notebooks 17(3), 89-100.
Statistics Denmark. Denmark’s Statistical Yearbook 2011, 2011. Retrieved on March 5, 2012, from http://www. www .dst.dk/.
Steele, M.F., & Chenier, T.C. (1990). Arm-span, height and age in black and white women. Annals of Human Biology, 17(6), 533-541.
Szöllősi, E. (1998). Secular trend in Debrecen university students (in Hungerian). Anthropologiai Közlemények, 39, 43-51.
Ter Goon, D., Toriola, A.T., Musa, D.I., & Akusu, S. (2011). The relationship between arm span and stature in Nigerian adults. Kinesiology, 43(1), 38-43.
TNO. Lifelong Healthy and Active - PDF growth charts, 2010. Retrieved on June 2, 2010, from http:// www.tno.nl/.
Tutkuviene, J. (2005). Sex and gender differences in secular trend of body size and frame indices of Lithuanians. Anthropologischer anzeiger, 63(1), 29-44.
Vignerová, J., Brabec, M., & Bláha, P. (2006). Two centuries of growth among Czech children and youth. Economics and Human Biology, 4(2), 237-252.
Werner, B., & Bodin, L. (2006). Growth from birth to age 19 for children in Sweden born in 1981: descriptive values. Acta Paediatrica, 95(5), 600-613.
Wronka, I., & Pawliñska-Chmara, R. (2009). Childhood environment and adult height among Polish university students. Collegium Antropologicum, 33(4), 1039-1045.
Zverev, Y.P. (2003). Relationship between arm span and stature in Malawian adults. Annals of Human Biology, 30(6), 739-743.